Cases reported "Pregnancy in Diabetics"

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11/166. Massive vulvar edema complicating a diabetic pregnancy.

    A 29-year-old primiparous diabetic woman was admitted to hospital due to poor glucose control at 23 weeks' gestation. During hospitalization, bilateral vulvar edema developed and progressed within days. The only remarkable finding in relation to the edema was hypoalbuminemia and associated proteinuria. Despite repositioning the patient, and correction of hypoalbuminemia, edema persisted. Mechanical drainage was tried as an alternative, and resulted in complete resolution of the edema with no recurrence.
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12/166. acceleration of diabetic retinopathy in pregnancy: a case report.

    AIMS: diabetic retinopathy can deteriorate during pregnancy. This usually manifests itself as an increase in the number of background retinopathy lesions, notably the appearance of new cotton wool spots, predominantly during the first trimester. The changes are usually attributed to the rapid attainment of tight glycaemic control during pregnancy. We present a case report of catastrophic deterioration in retinopathy during a period of stable glycaemic control. RESULTS: J.P. had normal fundoscopic appearance at booking and during the early part of pregnancy. She experienced rapid deterioration in visual acuity secondary to cystoid macular oedema and vitreous haemorrhage during the third trimester of pregnancy. Her glycaemic control was stable at that stage and had not changed when compared with earlier stages of pregnancy. She required three sessions of intrapartum laser therapy and postpartum vitrectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The case highlights the importance of regular retinal surveillance in a diabetic pregnancy, even in the absence of sudden improvements in glycaemic control.
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13/166. Fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the fetus of a woman with diabetes.

    BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is recognized in infants of diabetic mothers, and when it occurs it is generally benign and transient. We describe a case of fetal cardiac death caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an infant of a diabetic mother. CASE: hydrops fetalis caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulted in the death of a macrosomic male fetus of a young woman who had well-controlled diabetes mellitus and was treated with insulin therapy during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: It is important to monitor fetal heart function in macrosomic infants of diabetic mothers. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy might explain otherwise unexplained fetal deaths in women with diabetes.
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14/166. Neonatal small left colon syndrome: intramural not intraluminal obstruction.

    We have described a characteristic syndrome of intestinal dysfunction in infants of diabetic mothers. This finding appears to result from a transient intramural dysfunction. Many respond to rectal irrigations alone. However, a significant number will require close observation and possible diversion for persistent partial intestinal obstruction. Failure to recognize persistent obstruction may result in intestinal perforation.
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15/166. Neonatal small left colon syndrome. Occurrence in asymptomatic infants of diabetic mothers.

    An unusually high incidence (40%) of maternal diabetes was observed in a series of 20 newborn infants who had low colonic obstruction and barium enema findings of a uniformly narrowed colon from the splenic flexure to the anus. This has been termed the "neonatal small left colon syndrome." We investigated the incidence of this colon configuration in gastrointestinally asymptomatic infants of diabetic mothers. Of 12 such infants examined by barium enema, six have shown this same narrowing of the left colon. The relationship of maternal diabetes to the small left colon is not yet clearly understood.
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16/166. peroneal nerve palsy: a complication of umbilical artery catheterization in the full-term newborn of a mother with diabetes.

    Umbilical artery catheters are an essential aid in the treatment of newborn infants who have cardiopulmonary disease. However, it is well-known that umbilical artery catheterization is associated with complications. The most frequent visible problem in an umbilical line is blanching or cyanosis of part or all of a distal extremity or the buttock area resulting from either vasospasm or a thrombotic or embolic incidence. Ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region is a rare complication of umbilical artery catheterization. We report the case of a full-term infant of an insulin-dependent diabetic mother with poor blood glucose control who developed a left peroneal nerve palsy after ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region after umbilical artery catheterization. The infant was born weighing 5050 g. The mother of the infant had preexisting diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin from the age of 14 years. The metabolic control of the mother had been unstable both before and during the pregnancy. The neonate developed respiratory distress syndrome soon after birth and was immediately transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. Mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube was quickly considered necessary after rapid pulmonary deterioration. Her blood glucose levels were 13 mg/dL. A 3.5-gauge umbilical catheter was inserted into the left umbilical artery for blood sampling without difficulty when the infant required 100% oxygen to maintain satisfactory arterial oxygen pressure. Femoral pulses and circulation in the lower limbs were normal immediately before and after catheterization. A radiograph, which was taken immediately, showed the tip of the catheter to be at a level between the fourth and fifth sacral vertebrae. The catheter was removed immediately. Circulation and femoral pulses were normal and no blanching of the skin was observed. Another catheter was repositioned and the tip was confirmed radiologically to be in the thoracic aorta between the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae. The catheter was continuously flushed with heparinized solution. Three days after umbilical arterial catheterization, bruising was observed over the left gluteal region. The catheter was immediately removed despite its correct position. Over the next few days, the bruised skin and underlying tissues became necrotic. The area affected was 3 x 4 cm in diameter, with central necrosis surrounded by a rim of dark, red skin, which, in turn, was sharply demarcated from normal skin by a narrow, pale zone. Surgical excision of the gluteal necrosis was performed, but a deep ulcer 3 cm in diameter was left. The gluteal ulcer required 1 month to heal completely with extensive scar tissue formation. Throughout this period, the infant showed active movements in all of her limbs. At 4 weeks of age deterioration of all movement below the left knee with a dropping foot was observed. Severe peroneal nerve palsy was confirmed through nerve conduction studies, and there was electromyographic evidence of degeneration of the muscles supplied by the peroneal branch of the sciatic nerve. A Doppler study, which was also conducted, revealed no vascular damage. Treatment with physiotherapy and night-splinting of the left ankle was instituted. Repeated examination and nerve conduction tests at 3 months showed slow improvement with the left peroneal nerve remaining nonexcitable. At the time of this writing, the infant is 6 months old, and muscular strength below the left knee is still weak and atrophic changes in the form of muscle-wasting are already present. The rest of her motor development is normal. In our case, gangrene of the buttocks and sciatic nerve palsy followed displacement of the tip of the catheter into the inferior gluteal artery, a main branch of the internal iliac artery supplying the gluteus maximus, the overlying skin, and the sciatic nerve. The gangrenous changes were probably caused by vascular occlusion resulting from catheter-induced vasospasm of the inferior gluteal artery. sciatic nerve palsy associated with umbilical artery catheterization has been postulated to be caused by vascular occlusion of the inferior gluteal artery. Infants of diabetic mothers may exhibit changes in coagulation factors and be at increased risk of thrombotic complications in utero and postnatally. In addition, maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities, the incidence of which is 3 to 5 times higher than that among nondiabetic mothers. Although no particular or specific abnormalities have been associated with maternal disabilities, abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, including the development of umbilical vessels, frequently occur. This complication of umbilical artery catheterization has not been widely reported. We describe the first case that refers to gluteal gangrene and peroneal nerve palsy after umbilical artery catheterization of a newborn infant of a diabetic mother with poor blood glucose control. It should be noted that there were no contributing factors except that of the displacement of the catheter into the inferior gluteal artery. We speculate that the displacement of the tip of the catheter, with no difficulty in the present case, was associated with the maldevelopment of normal branching patterns of arteries after exposure of the fetus to hyperglycemia. In conclusion, umbilical artery catheterization is possibly associated with vascular occlusion, particularly in infants of diabetic mothers. Frequent inspection after the procedure has been performed is of the utmost importance especially in these neonates who often suffer from cardiopulmonary disease and require catheterization of their umbilical artery.
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17/166. Nonimmune "Fulminant" type 1 diabetes presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis during pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Ketoacidosis in pregnant women with previously undiagnosed diabetes is rare. Although insulin-dependent diabetes has recently been classified as either autoimmune (type 1A) or nonimmune (type 1B; "chronic" and "fulminant" subtypes), the clinical characteristics of diabetes in such settings are not fully understood. CASE: We report two pregnant patients with previously undiagnosed diabetes. They presented with severe diabetic ketoacidosis characterized by an abrupt onset, normal, or slightly elevated level of glycosylated hemoglobin, absence of diabetes-related autoimmune antibodies, and features typical of the "fulminant" subtype of nonimmune diabetes. The fetuses died in utero, and the mothers became insulin dependent. CONCLUSION: The "fulminant" subtype of diabetes may be associated with fetal death.
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18/166. Multiple arterial thrombi and in utero leg gangrene in an infant of a diabetic mother.

    This case report is of an infant of a diabetic mother who presented with lower extremity gangrene occurring in utero that necessitated a below the knee amputation at 3 hours of age. The association of venous thrombi in infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) has been firmly established. However, in this case the thrombi were arterial and resulted in gangrene during the second trimester of gestation. The reason for the increased tendency to develop thrombi in infant of diabetic mothers has not been elucidated. We did an extensive workup of this infant to look for a cause of the arterial thrombus. The only abnormality found was in the plasminogen activity, which was significantly lower than the reference values for infants of the same gestational and chronological age. The significance of this finding on the propensity of IDMs to develop thrombi is discussed.
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19/166. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a pregnant woman with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (RCM) is a rare but often fatal condition characterized by aggressive necrotizing infection originating from nose and spreading to paranasal sinuses, orbit and central nervous system. Although fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate fulminant infections in patients with underlying debilitating conditions. A case of RCM in a pregnant woman with diabetic keto-acidosis successfully treated by supportive care, amphotericin b and surgery is reported.
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20/166. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease in a pregnant patient. A case report and review of literature.

    BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy has been reported and has been shown to be associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the vast majority of these patients do not have previously recognized ischemic heart disease. pregnancy and delivery pose significant cardiac stress and risk to the mother and fetus. However, it is unknown how available therapies can be utilized in the pregnant patient with identified ischemic heart disease to minimize these risks. CASE REPORT: We present a 39-year-old asymptomatic diabetic female with a positive stress echocardiogram at 16 weeks of pregnancy who remained asymptomatic throughout pregnancy with medical management and went on to have a normal vaginal delivery in the process suffering a small non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with pulmonary edema following delivery due to volume overload. She ultimately underwent cardiac catheterization and successful four-vessel CABG 1 months after her delivery. CONCLUSION: We present this patient to suggest a successful strategy of managing a patient with non-revascularized asymptomatic coronary artery disease during pregnancy. In addition to reviewing the appropriate medical therapy during pregnancy, we discuss the data on revascularization procedures as well as recommendations for delivery and stress testing for such patients.
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