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1/95. Transient hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the newborn following multiple doses of antenatal corticosteroids.

    Postnatal exposure to steroids has been associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in the newborn. Such an effect has not been described in infants born to mothers who received antenatal steroids. We report three newborns whose mothers were treated with betamethasone prenatally in different doses, duration of time, and who developed various degrees of HCM diagnosed by echocardiography. There was no maternal evidence of diabetes except for one infant whose mother had a normal fasting and post-prandial blood glucose prior to steroid therapy, but an abnormal one hour postprandial glucose after 8 weeks of betamethasone therapy, with a normal HbA1 C level. There was no family history of HCM, no history of maternal intake of other relevant medications, and no hypertension in all three newborns. Follow-up echocardiography revealed complete resolution of the HCM changes in all infants. We suggest that repeated antenatal maternal steroid intake may cause changes of HCM in the newborn. These changes appear to be dose- and duration-related and are mostly reversible. Further prospective controlled studies to evaluate these observations and to investigate potential mechanisms are warranted.
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2/95. Cloverleaf skull and multiple congenital anomalies in a girl exposed to cocaine in utero: case report and review of the literature.

    The case of a girl with cloverleaf skull (CLS) and multiple congenital anomalies is reported. Both parents have a history of drug use. Maternal cocaine abuse during the first trimester of pregnancy was obvious, and other drugs, such as marihuana and alcohol, were also taken by the mother. Many central nervous system malformations have been reported in association with cocaine abuse, the most severe being midline defects and neural tube defects. To our knowledge this is the first case reported of CLS anomaly associated with drug exposure. We also describe other anomalies not previously reported in association with CLS.
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3/95. Multimodal cancer chemotherapy during the first and second trimester of pregnancy: a case report.

    This paper reports treatment with combined chemotherapy during pregnancy. A 39-year-old woman with breast cancer was given adjuvant chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 6-fluorouracil from the 6th to the 24th week of gestation. The possibility of teratogenic effects on the fetus was explained to the patient however she refused to terminate the pregnancy. A 30-week male infant with only a minor malformation was delivered. The authors reviewed the literature regarding chemotherapeutic agents given during the first trimester of pregnancy. Most cytotoxic drugs have teratogenic effects on experimental animal subjects. However, actual data on human fetuses are sparse because of the variety of therapeutic regimens and the rarity of administering chemotherapy during pregnancy. The long-term effects of exposure to cytotoxic drugs in utero, needs further research.
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4/95. Measuring prenatal drug exposure.

    Prenatal drug exposure is an important pediatric health issue. However, the effects on children are not clear because of limitations in the way drug exposure is typically measured. For example, one cannot say cocaine causes a specific outcome if cocaine exposure is not measured accurately. Before we can determine the developmental outcomes associated with drug exposure, 4 measurement issues must be considered: (1) the amount of exposure varies greatly, such as from 1 to 709 g of crack per month; (2) exposure may vary by trimester; (3) exposure could be to one drug or multiple drugs; and (4) different sources of exposure data can be inconsistent (e.g., toxicology and maternal self-report). We use data from 248 families participating in an ongoing longitudinal study to provide concrete examples of these measurement issues. Both nursing researchers and practitioners must carefully attend to measurement issues when interpreting research on the effects of prenatal drug exposure.
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5/95. Neonatal cholestatic hepatitis from carbamazepine exposure during pregnancy and breast feeding.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of transient cholestatic hepatitis occurring in an infant between the third and seventh weeks of life, most likely due to carbamazepine exposure during pregnancy and breast feeding. CASE SUMMARY: A boy, born to an epileptic mother who had been treated with carbamazepine monotherapy throughout pregnancy and breast feeding, experienced asphyxia at birth with transient hepatic dysfunction in the first week of life. After full recovery from asphyxia, he experienced a second period of liver dysfunction, presenting as cholestatic hepatitis that lasted approximately 5 weeks. Infectious and metabolic etiologies as well as extrahepatic biliary atresia were excluded. DISCUSSION: carbamazepine is known to induce hepatic damage in children and adults. As the drug crosses the placenta and is excreted into breast milk, infants of mothers taking carbamazepine might also develop liver dysfunction. In addition to the present case, there are 2 well-documented case reports of cholestasis in association with transplacental and transmammary carbamazepine exposure. CONCLUSIONS: carbamazepine-induced hepatitis may occur in association with prenatal exposure and breast feeding. This may expose infants to unnecessary diagnostic procedures, and should therefore be mentioned in the company's product information.
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6/95. Is ddt exposure during fetal period and breast-feeding associated with neurological impairment?

    The concentration of certain persistent organic pollutants was determined in a family including both parents and one son with neurological impairment suggested to be attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For comparison control subjects from other ongoing studies were used. They were of the same sex and age group as the respective family member. For polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordanes similar results were found in the study groups. The concentration of DDE, the main metabolite of ddt, was increased in the mother, 782 ng/g lipid, compared with mean 403, median 259 (range 51-1354) for the female controls. Also, the son had an increased concentration of 259 ng/g lipid, compared with mean 104, median 72 (range 46-349) for controls. A low concentration was found in the father, 127 ng/g lipid. As a child and as a teenager to the age of 17, the mother was exposed to ddt in her home environment. We discuss the potential of fetal and breast-feeding exposure of the son. Neurodevelopmental impairment has been reported for dioxins and PCBs, but ddt seems to have been less investigated in this respect.
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7/95. Severe congenital rickets secondary to maternal hypovitaminosis D: a case report.

    We report a full-term baby boy who presented soon after birth with severe congenital rickets. Maternal and neonatal vitamin D levels were very low and the infant responded well to oral vitamin D. Transient secondary hyperparathyroidism normalised on treatment. The mother's vitamin d deficiency was attributed to the region's cultural dress code which prevents exposure to sunlight. There has not been a previous report of severe congenital rickets from this region.
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8/95. maternal exposure to diethylene glycol monomethyl ether: a possible role in the etiology of retrocaval ureter.

    retrocaval ureter is a very rare condition. In light of the experimental studies, one of the etiologic factors seems to be maternal contact with diethylene glycol monomethyl ether or ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. A case of cardiovascular, skeletal, and retrocaval ureter anomalies caused by possible maternal contact while pregnant with these materials at her work in a textile factory is presented.
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9/95. Humeroradial synostosis, ulnar aplasia and oligodactyly, with contralateral amelia, in a child with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Humeral "bifurcation" due to humeroradial synostosis, and amelia are both very rare limb anomalies. We report on a Canadian. Aboriginal boy with both these limb deficiencies. The family history was unremarkable, but he was exposed prenatally to cocaine at the time of limb development. Humeroradial synostosis with ulnar aplasia has been reported by several authors. The majority of cases are unilateral. When both upper limbs arms are involved, cases with oligodactyly often have asymmetrical limb deficiencies and have all been sporadic to date. Some appear to represent cases of the femur-fibula-ulna or FFU complex. Affected individuals with normal hands usually have symmetrical defects and show an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Limb deficiencies have been reported in several infants exposed prenatally to cocaine and have been inducible in animal models. Most are terminal transverse defects or deficiencies of middle digits. When more than one limb is involved, the defects are usually asymmetric. Our case appears to be one of the most severely affected children reported to date.
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ranking = 4
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10/95. lead poisoning in pregnancy: a case study with implications for midwives.

    lead poisoning remains a significant problem in the united states affecting the health of women and children. Although the damage is greatest at higher levels of accumulation, no level of lead has been found to be safe. Over the last 25 years, the blood level of lead thought to be associated with toxicity has dropped dramatically, from to 60 mcg/dL in 1960 to 10 mcg/dL today. Studies confirm that exposure to lead causes kidney damage, encephalopathy, and impaired cognitive function in children and in adults. Recent evidence indicates children with levels less than 10 mcg/dL may suffer from compromised development and intellectual performance later in life. This article discusses the case of a woman found to have lead poisoning during pregnancy. Environmental sources of lead, implications for the immediate and future health of the fetus and mother, and techniques clinicians can use in their practice to minimize the adverse effect of lead on their clients are reviewed.
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