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1/3. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma with capsular invasion.

    A 67-year-old Japanese man developed a sudden onset of severe right-side upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. On hospitalization, physical examination revealed sweating, tachycardia, hypertension and the appearance of peripheral vasoconstriction. An urgent computed tomography scan with contrast demonstrated a large hematoma in the right retroperitoneal space. A phentolamine test and an 131iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine scan suggested pheochromocytoma. An elective right adrenalectomy was successfully performed after pretreatment for sufficient volume replacement with continuous administration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Pathological diagnosis was an adrenal pheochromocytoma 9.0 x 6.5 cm in diameter with evidence of capsular invasion, which could be associated with a tear in the capsule.
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2/3. Hereditary angioneurotic edema with severe hypovolemic shock.

    Hereditary angioneurotic edema (HAE) is characterized by recurrent attacks of edema of the upper airways, face, and limbs, and/or abdominal pains sometimes mimicking surgical abdomen. Our patient, a 24-year-old woman, had undergone laparotomy on a previous attack, at which a large amount of serious peritoneal fluid and edema of the intestinal wall were found. This time she presented with severe abdominal pain and profound hypovolemic shock requiring replacement of great amounts of fluids in addition to fresh frozen plasma. There was no evidence of bleeding, and the patient recovered rapidly. Based on clinical and ultrasonographic grounds and findings on previous laparotomy, we concluded that the shock was produced by fluid sequestration in the peritoneal cavity and intestinal wall. We propose that patients with HAE who present with abdominal pain, hypotension, hemoconcentration, and leukocytosis form a distinct subgroup with a high risk of hypovolemic shock. This dangerous development should be anticipated in these patients.
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3/3. Unrelenting hypotension associated with an acute abdomen in a comatose hemophiliac child: a case report.

    A comatose 4-year-old hemophiliac presented with an acute abdomen; subsequently he developed unrelenting hypotension. An immediate exploratory laparotomy was required, without time for determining baseline factor viii (AHF) levels. Despite hypotension and hemorrhage, vigorous intraoperative fluid volume replacement and the administration of fresh frozen plasma and AHF concentrates brought a successful conclusion.
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