Cases reported "Prolapse"

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1/25. Endoscopic management of prolapsing intravesical ureterocele in an adult female--a case report.

    The authors present a case of intravesical ureterocele in a female which prolapsed out of the external urethral meatus causing urinary obstruction, and was managed by reduction into the bladder followed by endoincision.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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2/25. Florid vascular proliferation of the colon related to intussusception and mucosal prolapse: potential diagnostic confusion with angiosarcoma.

    With the exception of angiodysplasia, vascular abnormalities of the intestines are unusual. We describe a florid benign vascular proliferation of the colon in five adult patients, three of whom presented with idiopathic intussusception. In all cases, the proliferation was sufficiently exuberant to raise the possibility of angiosarcoma as a diagnostic consideration. The group included 2 males and 3 females with a median age of 43 years. Two patients were hiv positive. Four patients presented with a colonic mass; other symptoms at presentation included abdominal pain, diarrhea, bleeding, and bowel obstruction. In all cases, a florid lobular proliferation of small vascular channels lined by plump endothelial cells extended from the submucosa through the entire thickness of the bowel wall. The endothelial cells showed minimal nuclear atypia, and mitotic figures were infrequent. The overlying mucosa showed ulceration with ischemic-type changes, and had features of mucosal prolapse. A possible underlying arteriovenous malformation was identified in two cases. All patients were alive and well at last follow-up (interval, 6 months to 5 years). The presence of intussusception or mucosal prolapse in all of the cases suggests repeated mechanical forces applied to the bowel wall as a possible etiologic factor. The role of hiv infection in the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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3/25. Prolapsed hyperplastic gastric polyp causing pancreatitis: case report.

    A huge hyperplastic gastric polyp prolapsed into the duodenum. The compression and obstruction of the ampulla of vater by this polyp caused acute pancreatitis. An overview of imaging findings, general considerations about hyperplastic gastric polyps, and a review of the literature are provided.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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4/25. Severe epiglottic prolapse and the obscured larynx at intubation.

    laryngomalacia is the most common congenital anomaly of the larynx and usually involves prolapse of the arytenoids, so-called 'posterior laryngomalacia'. Most cases resolve with growth of the child and maturation of the larynx, although, rarely, significant airway obstruction can be present. Severe laryngomalacia preventing intubation is rarely encountered. We report a case of a difficult emergency intubation secondary to 'anterior laryngomalacia' in a 4-month-old boy in whom the epiglottis prolapsed posteriorly and became trapped in the laryngeal introitus. The child was referred with a diagnosis of laryngeal atresia on the basis of the intubating laryngoscopic view of no apparent epiglottis or laryngeal inlet. The child was transferred with a tube in the oesophagus that kept the child oxygenated. At the time, oxygenation was felt to be due to a coexisting tracheo-oesophageal fistula, although this was eventually found not to be the case.
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ranking = 4.4138517316647
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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5/25. Pyloric obstruction caused by prolapse of a hyperplastic gastric polyp.

    Hyperplastic gastric polyps account for the majority of benign gastric polyps and are generally diagnosed by routine gastroscopy as they rarely become symptomatic. We report a 79-year-old woman who presented with intermittent attacks of bloating, belching, nausea and vomiting. endoscopy showed a pedunculated polyp in the gastric antrum prolapsing through the pylorus, thus obstructing the gastric outlet. The polyp was repositioned with an endoscopic forceps and then removed at its pedicle by endoscopic snare excision. Histologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without dysplasia or malignancy. The significance of gastric polyps is discussed from the clinical point of view.
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ranking = 4
keywords = obstruction
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6/25. Double trouble: prolapsing epiglottis and unexpected dual pathology in an infant.

    A 3-week-old full-term female neonate was admitted with a 4-day history of episodic stridor, desaturations and difficult feeding. Initial assessment using fluoroscopy suggested distal tracheomalacia. Inhalational induction for examination under anaesthesia of the upper airway at 4 weeks of age caused almost complete airway obstruction due to severe anterior, or epiglottic, laryngomalacia. This airway obstruction was unresponsive to continuous positive airway pressure, the use of an oropharyngeal airway and hand ventilation and required urgent tracheal intubation using suxamethonium. Epiglottopexy, a relatively unknown procedure, was performed uneventfully 2 days later, with complete relief of the respiratory compromise. However, the infant remained desaturated postoperatively. A ventilation perfusion scan subsequently revealed multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, unsuitable for embolization and requiring nocturnal home oxygen therapy. review at 3 months of age found a thriving infant with no airway obstruction and good epiglottic positioning on examination under anaesthesia. Although the patient's oxygen requirements had diminished, the long-term outcome remains uncertain.
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ranking = 13.557923771377
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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7/25. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.
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ranking = 6
keywords = obstruction
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8/25. Gastroesophageal intussusception: a new cause of acute esophageal obstruction in children.

    Gastrointestinal intussusception with obstruction is common in the small bowel and colon; however, such a process is not known to cause esophageal obstruction. Recent experience with gastroesophageal intussusception permits discussion of diagnosis and consideration of treatment options. A 3-year-old child presented with acute esophageal obstruction. physical examination was significant for epigastric tenderness and excessive salivation. Chest x-ray showed a posterior mediastinal fullness. Esophagram documented a smooth crescent-filling defect, which caused obstruction of the esophagus at the level of the carina with proximal esophageal dilatation. Chest computed tomography of the thorax showed a soft tissue mass of the distal esophagus. esophagoscopy confirmed occlusion of the midesophagus with the mucosa intact. A right thoracotomy permitted visualization of dilated proximal esophagus and a palpation of an intraluminal mass in the distal esophagus. Mobilization of the distal esophagus and gentle manual pressure cleared the obstruction to a point below the diaphragm. After a normal intraoperative esophagram, final treatment consisted of a longitudinal esophagomyotomy. The child recovered without complication and continues without recurrence for 18 months. This is the first report of gastroesophageal intussusception in children. Management by thoracotomy, manual reduction, and esophageal myotomy reestablished intestinal continuity and appears to eliminate recurrence; fundoplication or gastropexy may be alternative options. Preoperative recognition of gastroesophageal intussusception may allow nonoperative reduction or treatment by minimally invasive surgery.
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ranking = 9
keywords = obstruction
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9/25. Vaginal evisceration, small bowel prolapse and acute obstruction as a late complication of sacrospinous fixation.

    We describe the presentation, acute management and subsequent follow-up of a case of vaginal evisceration of small bowel in a woman who had complained of recurrent symptoms of prolapse following a vaginal hysterectomy and posterior repair and subsequent sacrospinous fixation for prolapse. The published incidence, risk factors, potential complications and described options of management are discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = obstruction
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10/25. Acquired laryngomalacia: epiglottis prolapse as a cause of airway obstruction.

    epiglottis prolapse during inspiration is an unusual cause of upper airway obstruction. It occurs primarily in patients who have lost pharyngeal airway support because of previous surgery or after head injury and coma. Eight cases of epiglottis prolapse are presented. One patient had epiglottis prolapse after resection of floor of mouth cancer and another after laryngeal fracture. The rest of the cases were seen in patients recovering from head injury and coma. Videolaryngoscopy shows the larynx to assume an ovoid shape within the pharynx. There is loss of the usual anterior to posterior pharyngeal and laryngeal dimension. The epiglottis is in a more horizontal position at rest. During inspiration, the epiglottis prolapses into the endolarynx, causing subtotal airway obstruction. Laryngeal obstruction due to epiglottis prolapse can prevent decannulation in the head-injured and can be the cause of obstructive sleep apnea. Endoscopic carbon dioxide laser epiglottectomy was successful in management of these cases.
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ranking = 27.588566582116
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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