Cases reported "Prostatic Neoplasms"

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1/131. Interposition of sural nerve restores function of cavernous nerves resected during radical prostatectomy.

    PURPOSE: The permanent loss of erectile function when both neurovascular bundles are widely resected at radical prostatectomy as well as the successful use of autologous nerve grafts in reconstructive surgery led us to perform bilateral nerve grafts in an effort to restore erectile function in potent patients treated for prostate cancer who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy and resection of both neurovascular bundles. MATERIALS AND methods: Radical retropubic prostatectomy with deliberate resection of both neurovascular bundles was recommended for high grade, locally extensive prostate cancer in 9 select, sexually active men who reported normal erectile function. After the prostate was removed but before vesicourethral anastomosis an autologous sural nerve graft was interposed between the divided ends of the cavernous nerves bilaterally. Erectile function was monitored by patient interview, questionnaire and nocturnal penile tumescence testing after the operation. RESULTS: Four to 5 months postoperatively patients noticed slowly improving spontaneous erections, as manifested by mild tumescence regularly every several hours. Nocturnal penile tumescence testing with the RigiScan device at 4 to 6 months in 2 cases revealed erections that approached minimal criteria for normalcy. Approximately 14 months after surgery a rigid erection sufficient for penetration and intercourse developed in 1 patient. He described this event as "an erection of substance-hard, not just fluffy." CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a technique using sural nerve grafts to restore continuity of the cavernous nerves, which are resected during radical prostatectomy. The early return of spontaneous partial erections in our patients suggests that interposition nerve grafts may enhance the recovery of erectile function when the neurovascular bundles are resected.
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2/131. Revision hip arthroplasty in patients with a history of previous malignancy.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The potential association between implants and malignancy has been discussed in the literature, but never as a cause of loosening of joint arthroplasty. methods: The records of all patients who underwent revision arthroplasty at our institution between 1992 and 1995 were reviewed. RESULTS: Among 93 patients who underwent revision hip arthroplasties, 11 (11.8%) had a history of previous malignancy. At surgery, in 2 of these patients, metastasis was found to be the cause of loosening in the affected hip. CONCLUSIONS: When revision hip arthroplasty is considered, patients with a history of malignancy require attenuated pre-, intra-, and postoperative workup. Management algorithm in such cases is proposed.
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3/131. Combined radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection.

    OBJECTIVES: To present our experience with a small series of men who underwent simultaneous radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection. methods: Three men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were found to have concurrent rectal tumors requiring resection. All three men underwent non-nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection (APR) or low anterior resection (LAR) of the rectum at the same operation. In the 2 patients undergoing APR, the levators were approximated posterior to the urethra, and the bladder was secured to the pubis. The patient undergoing LAR had urinary diversion stents placed and a diverting transverse loop colostomy. RESULTS: All 3 patients had excellent return of urinary continence. One patient required reoperation in the early postoperative period for small bowel adhesiolysis and stoma revision. Another patient had a mild rectal anastomotic stricture and a bladder neck stricture; both were successfully treated with a single dilation. No other significant complications occurred in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Radical retropubic prostatectomy can safely be performed with partial or complete rectal resection in a single operation. A few minor modifications of the standard radical retropubic prostatectomy in this setting are suggested.
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4/131. Prostate brachytherapy in patients with prior evidence of prostatitis.

    PURPOSE: To refute a misconception that a prior history of prostatitis is a contraindication to prostate brachytherapy. methods AND MATERIALS: Five patients with clinical or pathologic evidence of prior prostatitis were treated with transperineal brachytherapy. Four of the patients received a single i.v. dose of ciprofloxacin (500 mg) intraoperatively. Postimplant antibiotics were not given. The pretreatment biopsy slides were reviewed. RESULTS: Two of the five patients developed postimplant urinary retention requiring short-term catheterization, and both resolved spontaneously. One patient developed what appeared to be an exacerbation of his chronic prostatitis. CONCLUSION: We continue to recommend prostate brachytherapy for the treatment of clinically organ-confined cancer, with no concern about prior clinical or pathologic evidence of prostatitis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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5/131. Combined antegrade and retrograde endoscopic approach for the management of urinary diversion-associated pathology.

    BACKGROUND: Endourologic management of stones and strictures in patients with a urinary diversion is often cumbersome because of the absence of standard anatomic landmarks. We report on our technique of minimally invasive management of urinary diversion-associated pathology by means of a combined antegrade and retrograde approach. patients AND methods: Five patients with urinary diversion-associated pathology were treated at our institution between May 1997 and October 1998. Their problems were: an obstructing ureteral stone in a man with ureterosigmoidostomy performed for bladder extrophy; two men with a valve stricture in their hemiKock urinary diversions; an anastomotic stricture in a man with an ileal loop diversion; and a long left ureteroenteric stricture in a man with a right colon pouch diversion. After percutaneous placement of an guidewire across the area of interest, the targeted pathology was accessed via a retrograde approach using standard semirigid or flexible fiberoptic endoscopes. Postoperative follow-up with intravenous urography, differential renal scan, or both was performed at 3 to 24 months (mean 12 months). RESULTS: The combined antegrade and retrograde approach allowed successful access to pathologic areas in all patients. holmium laser/Acucise incision of stenotic segments or ballistic fragmentation of stones was achieved in all cases without perioperative complications. None of the strictures with an initially successful outcome has recurred; however, in one patient, the procedure failed as soon as the internal stent was removed. The patient with the ureteral calculus remains stone free, and his ureterosigmoidostomy is patent without evidence of obstruction on his last imaging study, 24 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Combined antegrade and retrograde endoscopic access to the area of interest is our preferred method of approaching pathologic problems in patients with a urinary diversion. An antegrade nephrostogram provides better delineation of anatomy, while through-and-through access enables rapid and easier identification of stenotic segments that may be hidden by mucosal folds. Furthermore, this approach allows the use of larger semirigid or flexible endoscopes in conjunction with more efficient fragmentation devices, resulting in enhanced vision from better irrigation. Finally, an initial endoscopic approach may be preferred because its failure does not compromise the success of future open surgery.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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6/131. Pulmonary thromboembolism during transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Although perioperative pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a common complication of surgery, intraoperative pulmonary thromboembolism is unusual. We report the occurrence of PTE during transurethral resection of the prostate. We believe this to be the first report of such a case.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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7/131. Intraoperative cytodiagnosis of metastatic brain tumors confused clinically with brain abscess. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Cystic lesions of the brain may have diverse etiologies, ranging from true cysts to malignant tumors with cystic degeneration. Preoperative determination of the exact nature of them as well as intraoperative diagnosis may be sometimes difficult or even impossible. sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis will be improved by introducing new methods or combining traditional procedures. CASES: Three metastatic brain carcinomas with primary sites of breast, pancreas and prostate presented as cystic lesions and were confused clinically with abscess. Intraoperative frozen section was not revealing. Cytologic study of sediments of aspirated fluid uncovered malignant cells. CONCLUSION: When combined with frozen section, intraoperative cytologic studies in the form of crush preparation, fine needle aspiration or evaluation of aspirated fluid in cystic lesions (as in our cases) can improve diagnostic accuracy by detecting important diagnostic features that otherwise may be missed.
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ranking = 8
keywords = operative
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8/131. The veterans' Administration Cooperative Urological research Group studies of carcinoma of the prostate: a review.

    The veterans' Administration Cooperative Urological research Group has conducted three consecutive randomized clinical trials of various treatments for all stages of prostatic carcinoma. Thus far, a total of 3774 patients have been entered into these three main studies. The first study showed that early endocrine treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer did not increase overall survival when compared to initial treatment with placebo alone. diethylstilbestrol, when given in a dose of 5.0 mg/day, was associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular deaths. In the second study, diethylstilbestrol given in a dose of 1.0 mg/day has been as effective as the 5.0-mg dose in controlling the prostatic carcinoma but has been associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular deaths. patients are still being entered into the third study and it is too early to report the findings in detail.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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9/131. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate.

    We report a case of malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate which is the eleventh reported case in the world. phyllodes tumor of the prostate is extremely rare and histologically resembles mammary phyllodes tumor. phyllodes tumor of the prostate is classified into benign, borderline and malignant, but health professionals should carefully follow up the borderline cases in case they take a malignant clinical course. This case was the first to be treated by pre- and postoperative radiation therapy. Although the patient had a slight response to radiation therapy, he eventually developed metastasis. Because malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate is a very aggressive tumor, people with the condition should undergo systemic chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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10/131. Idiopathic calcification of the seminal vesicles: a rare cause for prostate cancer overstaging.

    Calcification of the seminal vesicles is a rare phenomenon. We present 2 cases in whom calcification of the seminal vesicles led to preoperative overstaging of prostate cancer. Although idiopathic calcifications are extremely rare, calcifications appear more frequently in diabetic patients. Therefore, knowledge of these formations is essential to prevent overstaging, namely infiltration of the seminal vesicles.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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