Cases reported "Prosthesis Failure"

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1/114. Fracture of the femoral component associated with polyethylene wear and osteolysis after total knee arthroplasty.

    Fracture of the femoral component associated with polyethylene wear and osteolysis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has not been well reported before. A 63-year-old man with osteoarthritis of the right knee underwent TKA with a New Jersey LCS knee, with cementing on the tibia and patella but not on the femoral component. After 42 months, in addition to wearing of polyethylene of the tibia and patella, severe osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyle was noted. osteonecrosis caused loss of osseous support of the medial flange of the femoral component, and the bone ingrowth of the central and lateral flange to the distal femur was so good that it overcame the yield stress of the metal of the femoral component and caused fracture of the femoral component. The osteolytic area was filled with autogenous iliac bone, and a new femoral component was inserted and cemented. The patient's condition became satisfactory with relief of pain. Although uncommon, fracture of the femoral component does occur associated with polyethylene wear and osteolysis.
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keywords = bone
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2/114. Reactions and complications after the implantation of Endobon including morphological examination of explants.

    In the study described here, the integration of hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic implants (Endobon) was investigated. These implants have an interconnecting system of pores and are free from foreign protein. The material is not toxic, genotoxic, nor zytotoxic, and it is biocompatible. The progress of integration was investigated by means of clinical and radiological check-ups. From 10 patients, it was possible to obtain samples for histological analysis during a second operation (e.g., metal explantation). Microscopic examination showed bony integration with newly formed bone in direct contact with the HA ceramic; it also showed osteoblasts and osteoid seams. No second operation took place earlier than 4 months after the first operation, yet even after this relatively short period, bony integration was already evident. Clinical observation (based on x-rays, reports of pain, signs of inflammation) showed that in most cases healing was taking place without complications. More general operational complications such as thrombosis or nerve injury were observed in 4 patients. If the implant is not sufficiently protected from mechanical stress, bony integation will not take place, and the implant may fracture. HA ceramic, with a porosity between 30% and 80%, is not comparable to cortical bone but only to spongy bone. This factor must be taken into account when deciding whether a HA ceramic implant is indicated.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = bone
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3/114. rupture of pseudointima in an implanted vascular prosthesis: immunohistological study of plasminogen activators and matrix metalloproteinases.

    We investigated late-onset anastomotic stenosis in an implanted prosthetic graft. rupture of the pseudointima and hemorrhaging from the vasa vasorum were observed at the border of the collagenous tissue and fibrin layer. An immunohistological study showed that the fibrin layer was positive for tPA, but weakly positive for PAI-1. Some neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages in the fibrin layer were immunostained for tPA, uPA, uPAR, and MMP-1, -2 and -3. Some spindle-shaped cells surrounding the graft were immunostained for uPA, uPAR, MMP-1, -2, -3, -7 and -9, and TIMP-1 and -2. The endothelial cells of some microvessels were positive for MMP-1 and -2, and tPA. Some multi-nucleated giant cells were immunostained for MMP-7 and-9, tPA, PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR. Overexpressed MMPs and PAs possibly caused instability of the pseudointima.
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keywords = macrophage
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4/114. More than 10 years of follow-up of two patients after total femur replacement for malignant bone tumor.

    One patient with osteosarcoma and one with Ewing's sarcoma of the femur were in 1987 and 1988 treated with prosthetic replacement of the femur and chemotherapy. There has been no loosening of the prostheses and no recurrence of the tumor. The patients have maintained 60% and 63% limb function scores evaluated by ISOLS criteria.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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5/114. Disassembly of a Howmedica modular resection system.

    We report the postoperative disassociation of a Morse taper junction of a Howmedica Modular Resection system implanted after the resection of a malignant distal femoral bone tumor. The disassembly occurred without apparent trauma. This complication was managed by closed reduction under epidural anesthesia. This disassembly probably occurred because of decreased tension of the soft tissue around the prosthesis or an impaired locking mechanism.
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6/114. Surface analysis of a femoral stem after failed total hip replacement.

    We analysed the surface of a Ti alloy femoral stem in a cementless total hip replacement with early failure. A specific protocol consisting of non destructive and destructive tests was used in the evaluation of the retrieved stem. The tests confirmed that implant fretting due to bone abrasion constitutes an early phase of loosening.
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7/114. Early failure associated with the use of Hylamer-M spacers in three primary AMK total knee arthroplasties.

    We report 3 cases of early failure associated with AMK total knee arthroplasties with the use of Hylamer-M spacers. In 2 of these cases, massive osteolysis of the posterior condyles was noted; revision with the use of allograft bone to fill in the cavitary defects yielded excellent results. In all cases, large areas of pitting and delamination of the Hylamer spacers were noted. Given these cases and the previous literature on early failure of hip arthroplasties with Hylamer inserts, we recommend caution in using Hylamer for knee arthroplasty surgery.
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8/114. Failed cementless total knee arthroplasty presenting as osteolysis of the fibular head.

    Large osteolytic lesions can occur adjacent to cementless total knee arthroplasty components. This occurrence frequently is related to suboptimal design features leading to the generation of metal or polyethylene wear debris. Occasionally, such lesions can mimic a bone tumor. A case of a lytic lesion of the fibular head adjacent to a failed cementless knee arthroplasty is described along with a description of the damaged retrieved component that led to the failure.
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9/114. Recurrent coronary stent thrombosis.

    A 63-year-old woman with an acute anterior myocardial infarction was treated with primary stent implantation. The absence of coronary artery stenosis and an haematocrit of 58 were indicative of a myeloproliferative disorder and the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera (Vaquez' disease) was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration. The patient had a re-infarction 8 days later. A rescue percutaneous angioplasty was performed for stent thrombosis after unsuccessful thrombolysis. A few hours after sheath removal, a femoral artery thrombosis at the puncture side needed urgent thrombectomy. Finally, a second re-infarction occurred, followed by an irreversible cardiac arrest. Stent thrombosis is a difficult-to-treat complication in patients with polycythaemia vera. If this haematologic disorder is known, primary stent implantation for acute myocardial infarction may not be the first choice in these patients.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = bone
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10/114. The Ilizarov method for failed knee arthrodesis following septic TKR.

    knee arthrodesis is a well-recognized salvage procedure in patients with infected total knee arthroplasties. If a fusion is achieved, it offers the opportunity for a stable lower limb and eradication of infection, but at the expense of knee motion. However, knee arthrodesis in this setting may be difficult to achieve because of poor bone stock, persistent infection, soft tissue compromise, and often the poor general health of the patient. We report two cases of failed knee arthrodesis following periprosthetic infection where a fusion was successfully achieved with open debridement and a hybrid advanced Ilizarov fixator.
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