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1/6. Vertebral osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection due to staphylococcus simulans.

    staphylococcus simulans, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus, is a common animal pathogen that is rarely encountered in human infections. We describe a 70-year-old man who developed multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis and late prosthetic joint infection caused by this pathogen. The patient was a farmer who had daily contact with cows and drank unpasteurized milk, although the portal of the pathogen's entry remains speculative. culture of the vertebral disk biopsy specimen and cultures during resection arthroplasty yielded S. simulans. A review of the literature suggests that S. simulans may be more virulent than other species of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Accurate identification of S. simulans isolates would facilitate studies to further define its pathogenic role in human infections.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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2/6. pasteurella multocida infection of a total hip arthroplasty. A case report.

    The authors report a case history of a diabetic woman requiring revision hip arthroplasty of a Charnley total hip prosthesis that was infected with pasteurella multocida. The infection of the loose prosthesis followed a cat bite to the same leg. Advice is given on the management of patients with infection following animal inoculations, and the subject of increased risk with a loose prosthesis is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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3/6. Acute pasteurella multocida in total knee arthroplasty.

    Pasturella multocida is a rare cause of joint sepsis in total joint arthroplasty, and all case reports have identified a distant source of infection from an animal bite that has caused potential hematogenous seeding of the prosthesis. We report a case in which no potential distal wound source was found and the only likely etiology was local wound seeding from an old injury. In that injury, a saddle stirrup had caused a severe traumatic soft tissue injury as a horse had rolled over the patient. We draw attention to the fact that this particular bacteria is virulent in producing septic contamination of a total joint prosthesis, and aggressive treatment is indicated when such infection is identified.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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4/6. Prosthetic joint infection with Pasturella multocida following cat scratch: a report of 2 cases.

    Infection is a known cause of failure in a total joint arthroplasty. Secondary or delayed infections are caused by a wider variety of pathogens, including Gram-negative organisms. Pasturella multocida is a Gram-negative bacillus that forms part of the normal nasopharyngeal and gastrointestinal flora of cats and many other animals. Nontrauma-associated infections also have been reported, but these are more often confined to animal handlers. We report 2 patients who had cat scratch and who developed infection of their total hip arthroplasties with P multocida. Both patients were immunocompromised and required revision of their hip arthroplasty. One patient had 1-stage revision, because infective cause was not obvious at the time of surgery. These patients were followed for 18 months to 2 years after surgery, with good results.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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5/6. Bilateral prosthetic knee infection by campylobacter fetus.

    We present the first documented case of a bilateral prosthetic knee joint infection with campylobacter fetus. Our patient's risk factors included age, the presence of prosthetic joints, and potential exposure through his contact with farm animals. It is important to be aware of the possibility of C fetus joint infections in high-risk patients who present with pain after total joint arthroplasty.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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6/6. pasteurella multocida infection in total knee arthroplasty. Case report and literature review.

    pasteurella multocida, a small gram-negative bacterium, is part of the normal mouth flora of many animals, including domestic cats and dogs. While commonly associated with infections in animals, it is a rare cause of human disease. The majority of pasteurella infections in humans occur with percutaneous inoculation of the organism following a bite by a cat or dog, although disease without antecedent animal exposure or with causal animal contact does occur. The spectrum of disease produced ranges from localized, including abscess, cellulitis, lymphadenopathy, and osteomyelitis, to systemic, with septicemia, septic arthritis, respiratory, and central nervous system involvement. Altered host defenses and underlying chronic disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroid therapy, and severe hepatic or renal disease, may predispose to more serious systemic manifestations of infection. The authors report a case of P. multocida infection in a total knee arthroplasty as a result of a dog scratch and review the literature reporting P. multocida infections in total knee arthroplasty.
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ranking = 4
keywords = animal
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