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1/16. Ventral hernia synthetic mesh repair infected by mycobacterium fortuitum.

    We report the occurrence of a refractory infection caused by the "rapidly growing" nontuberculous mycobacterium, mycobacterium fortuitum, after incisional hernia repair using synthetic mesh. The patient had previously undergone three herniorrhaphies incorporating polypropylene mesh. Multiple surgical debridements were required, along with complete removal of all the mesh, to eradicate the infection. Prolonged antimicrobial therapy with sulfamethoxazole, an agent active against the patient's isolate, was also used. Although this atypical mycobacterium has been reported to cause a variety of infections, including many types of periprosthetic infections, this case represents successful treatment of M. fortuitum infecting abdominal wall mesh.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mycobacterium
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2/16. stenotrophomonas maltophilia endocarditis of prosthetic aortic valve: report of a case and review of literature.

    stenotrophomonas maltophilia (previously known as xanthomonas maltophilia and pseudomonas maltophilia ) is an aerobic, nonfermenting, gram-negative bacillus, which has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen in patients with compromised immunity. It is a rare cause of endocarditis with only 20 cases previously reported in medical literature. The risk factors associated with S maltophilia endocarditis include intravenous drug abuse, dental treatment, previous cardiac surgery, and infected intravascular devices. S maltophilia is resistant to multiple antibiotics, which leads to frequent therapeutic failures. Although the optimal antibiotic treatment for S maltophilia endocarditis remains unknown, most of the patients received 2 or more antibiotics. We report a case of S maltophilia endocarditis of prosthetic aortic valve, associated with a painless aortic dissection, that responded well to a combination of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. The literature is reviewed to elaborate the disease characteristics, the treatments used, and the prognosis of the S maltophilia endocarditis.
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ranking = 0.060492198595682
keywords = bacillus
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3/16. Late infection of a total knee arthroplasty with streptococcus bovis in association with carcinoma of the large intestine.

    infection of a total knee arthroplasty with streptococcus bovis in a 76-year-old man that led to the diagnosis of a bowel carcinoma is reported. Investigation revealed a malignancy in the ascending colon with extension into the adrenal gland. S bovis in conjunction with colonic neoplasia has been reported in several orthopedic conditions: vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis, lateral neck abscess, and osteomyelitis of the ileum. The relationship of S bovis to endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscesses, and peritonitis has also been well described. However, S bovis is a rare pathogen infecting joint prostheses and should raise the possibility of a gastrointestinal lesion.
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ranking = 0.84271963357137
keywords = bovis
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4/16. A case of septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia caused by streptococcus bovis type II.

    We present a case of septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis due to streptococcus bovis type-II in a patient who had undergone a total hip prosthesis under general anaesthesia three weeks earlier. This organism is an uncommon human pathogen that sometimes causes bacteraemia and endocarditis and is usually connected with colon pathology and dental procedures. In the reported case, there were no risk factors for S. bovis infection except for the hip operation. S. bovis type II sensitive to penicillin was isolated from all blood and pleural fluid cultures. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital two weeks after presentation.
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ranking = 0.73737967937495
keywords = bovis
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5/16. Septic arthritis caused by chryseobacterium meningosepticum in an elbow joint prosthesis.

    chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a Gram-negative bacillus historically associated with meningitis and sepsis in premature neonates. Clinicians should suspect this organism when Gram-negative bacilli are seen on Gram-stain and culture, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and in cases of disrupted host tissue integrity. We report the first case of septic arthritis due to this organism.
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ranking = 0.060492198595682
keywords = bacillus
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6/16. Prosthetic joint infection with Pasturella multocida following cat scratch: a report of 2 cases.

    infection is a known cause of failure in a total joint arthroplasty. Secondary or delayed infections are caused by a wider variety of pathogens, including Gram-negative organisms. Pasturella multocida is a Gram-negative bacillus that forms part of the normal nasopharyngeal and gastrointestinal flora of cats and many other animals. Nontrauma-associated infections also have been reported, but these are more often confined to animal handlers. We report 2 patients who had cat scratch and who developed infection of their total hip arthroplasties with P multocida. Both patients were immunocompromised and required revision of their hip arthroplasty. One patient had 1-stage revision, because infective cause was not obvious at the time of surgery. These patients were followed for 18 months to 2 years after surgery, with good results.
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ranking = 0.060492198595682
keywords = bacillus
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7/16. A rare case of listeria monocytogenes presenting as prosthetic valve bacterial endocarditis and aortic root abscess.

    listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacillus that is rarely associated with infections in the general population. Those susceptible to this pathogen include neonates, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised. The most common clinical manifestations of listeriosis are bacteremia and meningitis. endocarditis caused by L. monocytogenes is rare with less than 60 cases reported in the world literature. We report the case of an 81-year-old man who suffered aortic prosthetic valve listeria endocarditis, and examine the literature regarding this rare manifestation of human listeriosis.
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ranking = 0.060492198595682
keywords = bacillus
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8/16. Mycobacterium farcinogenes infection after total hip arthroplasty.

    Atypical mycobacterium infection after total hip arthroplasty is a very rare but a potential cause of implant failure. We present the first report of Mycobacterium farcinogenes infection in human beings. Although the treatment of atypical mycobacterium infection after total hip arthroplasty is controversial, we successfully treated the infection in this case, after consultation with a microbiologist regarding infection management, with both surgery and chemotherapy. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion for atypical mycobacterium infection, particularly when standard culture findings are negative despite strong clinical evidence of prosthesis infection.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = mycobacterium
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9/16. Intra-abdominal abscess in the course of intragastric migration of an adjustable gastric band: a potentially life-threatening complication.

    Intragastric band migration is a potential complication of adjustable gastric banding. A 39-year-old morbidly obese female underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. After uneventful postoperative follow-up of 4 years, she had slow, steady failure of the restrictive effect, associated with regain of weight. Intragastric band migration was confirmed on GI series, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for revision. The patient presented no symptoms of acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, a huge intra-abdominal abscess was discovered in the epigastric area. The stomach with the band and tubing were involved in the inflammatory process. Labtobacillus acidofilus was found to be the causative organism. Removal of the gastric band with simultaneous resectional gastric bypass was performed. The recovery proceeded with no complications. Intragastric band migration can cause intra-abdominal abscess; thus, we believe that every case of band migration should be treated without delay to avoid further complications.
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ranking = 0.060492198595682
keywords = bacillus
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10/16. hip prosthesis infection due to Mycobacterium wolinskyi.

    Mycobacterium wolinskyi, first described in 1999, is a rapidly growing mycobacterium related to the mycobacterium smegmatis group. Only eight cases of infection due to this microorganism have been reported, including three cases of bone infection. Here, we present the first case of a joint prosthesis infection cured with the combination of surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The microorganism was identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA and Hsp65 gene sequence analysis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = mycobacterium
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