Cases reported "Protein S Deficiency"

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1/180. Compound heterozygosity for one novel and one recurrent mutation in a Thai patient with severe protein s deficiency.

    Homozygous or compound heterozygous protein S (PS) deficiency is a very rare disorder in the anticoagulant system, that can lead to life-threatening thrombotic complications shortly after birth. This report describes the results of the genetic analysis of the PROS 1 genes in a Thai girl patient. She was reported in 1990 as the first case with homozygous PS deficiency and neonatal purpura fulminans. In the present report, we identified the mutations in this patient by direct sequencing of PCR products representing all 15 exons of the PROS 1 gene and their flanking intronic regions. The patient turned out to be compound heterozygous for two null mutations. One allele contained a novel sequence variation, an A-insertion in an A5-tract covering codon 146 and 147, that results in a frameshift and a stop codon (TAA) at position 155. The other allele contained a nonsense mutation in exon 12 by a transition at codon 410 CGA (Arg) to TGA (stop). Cosegregation of PS deficiency with these two genetic defects was observed in her family.
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2/180. Anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis in a patient with hereditary deficiency of protein S.

    skin necrosis is a rare but debilitating complication of treatment with vitamin k antagonist anticoagulants such as warfarin. A clinically similar syndrome has been reported less frequently with heparin therapy. We recently managed a thirty-year-old female patient who developed skin necrosis on her left lower extremity while on warfarin for postpartum DVT. The lesions started to develop 48 hr after stopping heparin therapy. Discontinuation of warfarin and reinstitution of heparin was complicated by a rapid decrease in platelet count consistent with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and its associated risk of platelet activation and thrombosis. The diagnosis was supported by the identification of antibodies against heparin/platelet factor 4 complexes in the patient's serum. The platelet count recovered and the patient improved after switching to therapy with the heparinoid danaparoid. Evaluation for a hypercoagulable state revealed a partial deficiency of protein S, a condition that previously was identified in two of her family members. It is not clear if this patient suffered from warfarin-induced skin necrosis, a manifestation of heparin-mediated platelet activation, or a complex condition in which both drugs contributed. HIT may affect 1-3% of patients who receive unfractionated heparin, and this case raises the possibility that heparin may contribute to, or cause, some episodes of skin necrosis attributed to warfarin. Because many patients who develop warfarin-induced skin necrosis have been treated initially with heparin, it would seem prudent to consider HIT in these situations.
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3/180. Severe cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant with protein s deficiency.

    A 12-month-old infant presented with cerebral seizures and neurological deficits. MRI scan of the brain and angiography showed massive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicated by a dural arteriovenous fistula. Subsequent clotting analysis revealed a protein s deficiency. Screening for inherited coagulation inhibitor deficiency is recommended in children with unexplained or atypical thrombotic events.
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4/180. myocardial infarction and death after caesarean section in a woman with protein s deficiency and undiagnosed phaeochromocytoma.

    We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman, with a previous history of recurrent abortion due to protein s deficiency, undergoing an elective Caesarean section at 39-weeks gestation. During pregnancy no signs of hypertension or cardiovascular disease were reported, but at the end of the surgical procedure, the patient developed acute hypertension, leading to myocardial infarction, severe heart failure and death. The autopsy revealed a 2-cm undiagnosed phaeochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland. Clinical diagnostic features of phaeochromocytoma during pregnancy as well as the main therapeutic approaches suggested in the literature are discussed.
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5/180. Acquired protein s deficiency with multiple thrombotic complications after orthotopic liver transplant.

    BACKGROUND: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is frequently complicated by thrombotic events that may threaten the viability of the allograft and severely compromise the overall outcome in these patients. Although multiple prothrombotic pathogenic mechanisms may be involved, a role for inadequate natural anticoagulant levels in the early postoperative period has been postulated. methods: We describe a case of a woman who suffered multiple thrombotic complications after a second OLT. Prospective assays of procoagulant and natural anticoagulant factor levels, in addition to screening tests for a variety of inherited and acquired hypercoagulable states, were carried out. RESULTS: Serial studies confirmed an acquired, isolated deficiency of Protein S associated with the second transplanted liver. Protein S levels were normal after the patient's first and third OLTs. There was no laboratory evidence of other underlying prothrombotic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This unusual case of acquired protein s deficiency demonstrates that the hypercoagulable phenotype may develop in the recipient of a liver from a heterozygous deficient donor. Furthermore, isolated low Protein S may be causally associated with hepatic artery thrombosis after OLT.
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6/180. Vitreoretinal findings similar to retinopathy of prematurity in infants with compound heterozygous protein s deficiency.

    OBJECTIVE: To present previously undescribed vitreoretinal findings similar to severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in two siblings (daughter and son) with a thrombophilic disorder, compound heterozygous protein S (PS) deficiency. DESIGN: family genotype study and literature review. PARTICIPANTS: Two unrelated heterozygous PS-deficient parents and their two children with compound heterozygous PS deficiency were studied. The gestational age and birth weight of the daughter were 40 weeks and 3200 g, respectively, and those of the son were 34 weeks and 2150 g, respectively. Three other neonates with homozygous or compound heterozygous PS deficiency and ophthalmologic findings were identified in the literature. INTERVENTION: The daughter underwent lensectomy-vitrectomy at 48 weeks adjusted age bilaterally. The son underwent therapy developed for severe ROP: laser therapy of the peripheral avascular retina at 39 weeks adjusted age, and bilateral lensectomy-vitrectomy with membrane peel of intravitreous proliferation from the optic disc at 42 weeks adjusted age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main clinical outcome measures were retinal appearance and functional vision. Genotypes of the family members were determined. RESULTS: One of the four eyes retained functional vision. A normal-appearing posterior retina, normal scotopic and photopic flash electroretinograms, and a normal flash visual-evoked response were documented from the left eye of the son at 62 weeks adjusted age. The other three eyes had inoperable retinal detachments and no functional vision. The mother had type I PS deficiency and the father had type II PS deficiency. Compound heterozygous PS deficiency was confirmed in both children. CONCLUSION: In both children, normal vasculogenesis was interrupted. At 39 weeks adjusted age, the retinal examination of the son revealed extraretinal fibrovascular proliferation at the optic disc (reactivation of the hyaloid system) and in the peripheral retina (interruption of inner retinal vascularization). patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous PS deficiency may present as infants with severe ROP. The authors' experience suggests that appropriately timed surgical procedures, which are efficacious for ROP, can preserve vision in infants with thrombophilic disorders.
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7/180. Inherited protein c deficiency, protein s deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis.

    We report a family with hereditary spherocytosis in whom there is, in addition, a cluster of genetic predispositions to thrombosis. Although inherited prothrombotic abnormalities are prevalent in the general population, the likelihood of this combination of abnormalities being found in a single family is extremely low. The management of such high risk individuals is discussed.
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8/180. Mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis in a young patient with protein s deficiency treated with urokinase via the superior mesenteric artery.

    A 32-year-old man, who was previously healthy, had acute abdominal pain without peritonitis. Diffuse mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis were shown by means of a computed tomography scan. A protein s deficiency was found by means of an extensive workup for hypercoagulable state. Successful treatment was achieved with urokinase infusion via the superior mesenteric artery without an operation. This represents an attractive alternative approach to treating patients with this disease. The previous standard of operative intervention(1) can now be reserved for complications, such as bowel infarction with peritonitis, or for those patients with absolute contraindications to thrombolytic therapy.
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9/180. Cardiac transplantation in a patient with protein s deficiency.

    Cardiac transplantation was successfully performed in a patient with end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy and hereditary protein s deficiency who had undergone two previous coronary artery bypass graft procedures. Routine intraoperative heparinization and reversal with protamine was undertaken, and the antifibrinolytic agent aprotinin was infused throughout the procedure without perioperative hemorrhage or thrombosis. Systemic anticoagulation with intravenous heparin was resumed on postoperative day 2, and the patient was then converted to Lovenex as outpatient anticoagulation to facilitate routine surveillance endomyocardial biopsies.
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10/180. Intermittent left coronary occlusion caused by native aortic valve thrombosis in a patient with protein s deficiency.

    A 77-year-old woman presented with chest pain and cardiogenic shock. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a mobile mass occluding intermittently the left coronary ostium. The mass was surgically resected, and histologic examination revealed an organized thrombus. Coagulation study demonstrated a protein s deficiency. This is the first case of aortic thrombosis associated with protein s deficiency, and it is the first time that transesophageal echocardiography provided definite evidence that a mass can cause intermittent left ostium coronary obstruction.
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