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11/19. Malnutrition, a rare form of child abuse: diagnostic criteria.

    Infantile malnutrition is often difficult to diagnose as it is rarely observed in industrialized countries. It may be associated with physical violence or occur in isolation. The essential clinical sign is height and weight retardation, but malnutrition also causes a variety of internal and bone lesions, which lead to neuropsychological sequelae and death. We report a rare case of death by malnutrition in a female child aged 6 1/2 months. The infant presented height and weight growth retardation and internal lesions related to prolonged protein-energy malnutrition (fat and muscle wasting, thymic atrophy, liver steatosis) resulting in a picture of marasmus or kwashiorkor. We detail the positive and negative criteria that established the diagnosis of abuse, whereas the parents had claimed a simple dietary error.
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12/19. Secondary ichthyosis: report of 2 cases.

    Two adolescent girls suffering from severe secondary ichthyosis in association with gross protein-energy malnutrition are reported. In one patient, it was sheer advanced malnutrition which appeared to be the cause of ichthyosis. The other subject seemed to have developed reversible gross ichthyosis secondary to severe malnutrition and the accompanying pulmonary tuberculosis. Acquired ichthyosis of such a magnitude as a result of malnutrition as the chief primary disease has not yet been recorded in the English medical literature.
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13/19. The development of an adopted child recovering from severe malnutrition. Case report.

    The growth and developmental level (DQ) of a child who was in hospital with severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) at nine months of age and was subsequently exposed to a greatly improved environment are described. The child was a subject in a longitudinal study, and his progress is compared with that of 16 other children recovering from severe PEM who continued to live in poor homes. All children had regular developmental assessments over five years and their growth was measured. The study child showed dramatic improvements in DQ, and at five years was over two standard deviations above the mean score of the other group. Compared with the other children, he improved more in weight but remained similar in height.
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14/19. protein deficiency and treatment of xerophthalmia.

    In a controlled clinical trial of massive-dose vitamin a therapy for xerophthalmia, holo-retinol-binding protein (holo-RBP) response was related to baseline protein status. Corneal healing was more commonly delayed or transient in children with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), despite the vast majority achieving holo-RBP levels incompatible with severe corneal destruction. Correction of PEM is essential to ensuring a sustained clinical cure, and repeated massive vitamin a therapy is advisable until that occurs.
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15/19. Early identification and treatment necessary to prevent malnutrition in children and adolescents with severe disabilities.

    Children with severe developmental disabilities frequently have nutrition and growth problems that range from moderate to severe. Because of notable continuing medical concerns and lowered growth expectations, parents and physicians may fail to recognize gradual deterioration in nutritional status before severe medical complications occur. The two cases reported in this article illustrate the need for early identification and treatment to prevent the development of notable morbidity secondary to malnutrition. Children and adolescents who have growth parameters consistently below age norms require assessment and monitoring by a registered dietitian to detect feeding problems and intake changes and to provide early intervention to help prevent negative consequences (eg, dehydration, protein-energy malnutrition, decubitus ulcers, increased rate and duration of infections, and altered bowel motility). An initial assessment should consist of measurement of length or height, weight, triceps, and subcapsular skinfolds; dietary and feeding history and a review of medical history; and biochemical testing as indicated by the medical and dietary histories. Monitoring frequency, which is determined by age, severity of condition, and response to treatment, may vary from weekly to bimonthly.
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16/19. pathology of the lungs in childhood malnutrition in jamaica. light and electron microscopy.

    The autopsy records of 115 children with severe protein-energy malnutrition were reviewed. Sections of the lung histology showed evidence of bacterial pneumonia in 49% of cases. An additional 18% showed bronchitis, bronchiolitis or interstitial pneumonitis. Aspiration of gastric contents was evident in 10% of cases; 6% showed pulmonary oedema and congestion. In the remaining cases, no lung pathology was identified (17%). In 8 cases, rapid autopsy examination permitted fixation of lung tissue for electron microscopy. These included 4 cases of bronchopneumonia, one of which was associated with viral pneumonia. Another interstitial pneumonitis, probably of viral aetiology, was also studied. Both these virus-associated cases showed loss of type I pneumocytes and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes. Another patient with herpes simplex hepatitis showed necrotic emboli in pulmonary capillaries with virions, as well as colonies of interstitial bacteria. One patient with acute pulmonary oedema displayed severe endothelial cell swelling on electron microscopy. In one case, there was no evidence of respiratory changes, apart from desquamation of type I pneumocytes. Useful information can be obtained on the fine structure of the lung, using samples taken soon after death.
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17/19. Enteral supplementation of phosphate does not prevent hypophosphatemia during refeeding of cachectic patients.

    hypophosphatemia due to parenteral nutrition has been described frequently. It was attributed to the lack of phosphorus content in parenteral nutrition solutions. With modern parenteral nutrition regimens containing phosphorus, this problem has been virtually eliminated. Enteral nutrition solutions contain adequate phosphate for patients with normal phosphate stores. hypophosphatemia has therefore rarely been reported in enteral nutrition. We describe two patients with protein-energy malnutrition who developed severe hypophosphatemia during tube feeding with phosphorus-containing formula diets. Chronic alcoholism and vitamin d deficiency due to malabsorption because of Crohn's disease were additional risk factors in these two patients. patients with depleted phosphate stores and high metabolic demand have a higher daily requirement for phosphorus than is available in routine isotonic enteral formulas. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring serum phosphate concentration daily during the first week of refeeding.
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18/19. A proposed revision of current ICD-9-CM malnutrition code definitions.

    protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is as common today in adult medical and surgical patients as it was when it was first identified more than 25 years ago. Under the current diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment system, malnutrition is considered a comorbidity or complicating condition. Thus, the identification and coding of malnutrition through the use of the international classification of diseases, ninth edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) malnutrition codes can potentially change a patient's DRG and subsequently increase the amount of reimbursement a hospital receives. Unfortunately, the definitions for the current ICD-9-CM malnutrition diagnosis codes were developed principally in relation to clinical syndromes of primary PEM seen in pediatric age groups in less developed countries, rather than in relation to syndromes seen in hospitalized adult patients in industrialized societies. This discrepancy often leads to confusion and inconsistency when institutions attempt to code adult patients for malnutrition. Furthermore, inaccurate coding can result in inadequate reimbursement or rejection of a claim. Clearly, a separate description of the different forms of PEM seen in adults is needed not only for optimal application of nutrition support therapies but also for accurate medical records, quality assurance procedures, and reimbursement purposes. On the basis of 20 years of experience providing nutrition support to hospitalized adult patients, this article presents a schema developed at the Deaconess Hospital (boston,Mass) that attempts to better define adult PEM using the ICD-9-CM malnutrition codes. The purpose of this article is to foster discussion and ultimately promote general agreement about a definition of adult PEM.
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19/19. Scanning electron microscopy of the jejunum in children with protein-energy malnutrition.

    Samples of jejunum from seven children dying from severe oedematous malnutrition were fixed with intralumenal glutaraldehyde in combination with external immersion, using a rapid autopsy protocol. Selected areas were post-fixed in osmium tetroxide, dehydrated with an ethanol series and critical point dried. After mounting on aluminium stubs, specimens were sputter-coated with a thin layer of gold and palladium. Scanning electron microscopy showed patterns ranging from subtotal villous atrophy, through partial villous atrophy with low ridges, to longer, taller ridges with cerebriform convolutions. In one case, villous height had been interpreted as normal on light microscopy. The scanning electron microscope revealed that the mucosa in this case was composed of ridges and leaf forms. Processing for scanning electron microscopy is simple. The specimens can be viewed and photographed in a relatively short time. In addition, the three-dimensional record provides clarification of ambiguities which often arise from routine histological sections.
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