Cases reported "prune belly syndrome"

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1/115. The importance of an intact abdominal musculature mechanism in maintaining spinal sagittal balance. Case illustration in prune-belly syndrome.

    STUDY DESIGN: A rare case of thoracic hypokyphotic deformity secondary to prune-belly syndrome is presented. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the role of an intact abdominal musculature mechanism in maintaining spinal sagittal balance, and to present a case illustration of prune-belly syndrome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There has been an ongoing debate concerning the integrity of the abdominal musculature unit in maintaining spinal support and stability. It is now believed that intra-abdominal pressure hitherto generated plays an important role in the stabilization of the spine. Congenital aplasia of the abdominal musculature, termed prune-belly syndrome, might therefore result in the loss of spinal function and stability. The literature also is reviewed for the incidence of spinal deformities related to this condition. methods: A unique case of prune-belly syndrome in a 33-year-old man with congenital aplasia of the abdominal musculature is presented. RESULTS: The patient exhibited loss of the spinal sagittal balance, with resultant development of a thoracic hypokyphotic deformity and thoracolumbar scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: scoliosis appears to be the most commonly reported spinal deformity. Unequal compressive forces on the vertebral endplates may be the proposed mechanism for the spinal deformities. Compensatory lumbar paraspinal overactivity resulting from the inability to generate normal intra-abdominal pressures because of a deficient abdominal wall musculature mechanism seems to be the plausible explanation for the observed thoracic hypokyphatic deformity. ( info)

2/115. Prune-belly syndrome diagnosed at 14 weeks' gestation with severe urethral obstruction but normal kidneys.

    A fetus was diagnosed with prune-belly syndrome (PBS) found by ultrasound demonstration of cystomegaly at 12 weeks' gestation. Fetal urinary electrolyte and beta2-microglobulin concentrations at 14 weeks' gestation indicated a poor renal prognosis. The pregnancy was therefore terminated. An autopsy showed defects of the abdominal wall muscles and megalocystis caused by severe urethral obstruction. However, the kidneys were histologically normal. Together with previous reports, the present case suggests that renal dysplasia in PBS with severe uretheral obstruction may develop after 14 weeks' gestation. We discuss the possibility of preventing the development of renal dysplasia in PBS by early prenatal decompression of the obstructed fetal urinary tract. ( info)

3/115. prenatal diagnosis of cystic bladder distension secondary to obstructive uropathy.

    We report the perinatal findings of a huge midline posterior cystic bladder distension secondary to lower urinary tract obstruction and prune-belly syndrome in a male fetus. A 40-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 0, was referred at 21 gestation weeks with sonographic findings of anhydramnios and a fetus with a 9.5 x 6.0 cm intra-abdominal cystic mass containing two chambers. The in utero ultrasound-guided fetal bladder drainage using a single needle aspiration and the ultrasound follow-ups of fetal bladder filling provided a diagnostic aid. This method helped to show the position of the bladder and the cystic bladder mass as well as the status of communication in response to decompression or filling of the fetal bladder. cytogenetic analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. autopsy showed agenesis of the posterior urethra, prominent megacystis, a cystically distended mass arising from the lower posterior bladder, hydronephrosis, megaureters, and anorectal agenesis with an intestinal blind end adherent to the posterior wall of the uterus. There were no urogenital duplication, hindgut duplication, or urachal abnormalities. The contracted bladder had a full-thickness muscular wall with a trigone and two ureteral orifices while the cystically distended bladder did not have any opening and was lined by a very thin wall. histology of the cystic bladder wall demonstrated typical urothelium, lamina propria and muscularis propria. The pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of cystic bladder distension are discussed. ( info)

4/115. early diagnosis of fetal bladder outlet obstruction.

    Prenatal ultrasonography has facilitated early diagnosis of in utero bladder outlet obstruction. This represents one of the earliest diagnoses of prune-belly syndrome and sheds light on the natural history of the bladder outlet obstruction in the fetus. ( info)

5/115. Complications of intrauterine intervention for treatment of fetal obstructive uropathy.

    The intrauterine surgical placement of vesicoamniotic shunts in the treatment of fetal obstructive uropathy associated with prune-belly syndrome to avoid such complications as renal damage and oligohydramnios remains controversial. We present a case of an infant born with prune-belly syndrome at 33 weeks and 5 days of estimated gestational age to a mother of two by vaginal delivery after a pregnancy complicated by fetal obstructive uropathy with attempted intrauterine intervention. After sonographic and laboratory diagnostic and prognostic evaluations, an intrauterine procedure was performed in which a vesicoamniotic shunt was placed under ultrasound guidance. Complications included dislodgment of the initial shunt, with a failed subsequent attempt at placement, oligohydramnios, preterm labor and delivery, and traumatic gastroschisis through the surgical abdominal wall defect. His hospital stay was further complicated by chronic renal insufficiency, prematurity, respiratory distress, bowel malrotation, an episode of gram-negative sepsis with enterobacter cloacae, signs of liver failure, an exploratory laparotomy for severe enterocolitis, and orchiopexy for bilateral undescended testes. At present, it is unclear whether vesicoamniotic shunt placement can provide any significant improvement in the morbidity or mortality for patients with prune-belly syndrome. A large, prospective, randomized trial is needed to determine its efficacy. ( info)

6/115. Concordant prune belly syndrome in monozygotic twins.

    We report 2 cases of concordant prune belly syndrome occurring in monozygotic twins. In addition to suggesting a genetic basis for this disease, our 12-year follow-up of these cases illustrates that these patients with an otherwise poor prognosis can have normal growth, development, and renal function with appropriate treatment. ( info)

7/115. Prune-belly syndrome associated with extra-abdominal abnormalities in a 7-year-old boy.

    Prune-belly syndrome (PBS) is an association of abdominal wall deficiency, genitourinary anomalies, and in males, cryptorchidism. Other congenital anomalies are associated with PBS, particularly musculoskeletal deformities and gastrointestinal tract anomalies. In this report, a seven-year-old boy with PBS had mega cisterna magna variant, microcornea, aortic stenosis with bicuspid aortic valves, cholelithiasis, and Hirschsprung's disease. Coexistence of these abnormalities with PBS supports the concept of PBS being caused by an early disturbance of not only mesodermal development but also of the other germ layers. There was maternal ingestion of drugs in the 1st month of gestation. All cases with PBS should be evaluated thoroughly for extra-abdominal abnormalities resulting from disturbances of ectodermal and endodermal development. Even though disturbances related to ectodermal and endodermal development may be asymptomatic, early diagnosis of the disturbances may help in preventing possible future problems. ( info)

8/115. A case of prune belly syndrome.

    The prune belly syndrome was first described in 1839 by Frolich. Till now about 300 cases have been reported in literature. The complete form of the syndrome is presented by a classic triad that is seen only in boys and is incompatible with life. The etiology of the syndrome is uncertain. Genetic factors, intrauterine infections, adverse mechanical factors have been implicated. The prenatal diagnosis relies on the ultrasonographic findings of oligohydramnion, renal anomalies, and non-immune fetal hydropsy. The present case concerns a newborn of male sex suffering from the most severe and rare form of the syndrome. The child died 5 minutes after his birth. The pathological examination found the patient devoid of striated muscles anterior abdominal wall, urethral atresia, hyperthrophy of the urinary bladder, bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis and coinciding cryptorchidism. The case indicates the PBS as one of the possible reasons for non-immune fetal hydropsy. ( info)

9/115. Management of the abdominal wall defect in the prune belly syndrome by muscle transposition: an 18-year follow-up.

    prune belly syndrome (PBS), an uncommon anomaly, consists of genito-urinary abnormalities and a partial or complete absence of abdominal wall musculature. Although the patient's genito-urinary problems are addressed, the attention currently directed toward the abdominal wall deficiency has been mostly aimed at improving the cosmetic appearance of patients and does little to replace the important functions of the musculature. These functions are the support of the viscera and their compression as well as the movement of the trunk. A case report with an 18-year follow-up is presented where thigh muscles were transposed to act as substitutes for the missing musculature. Although this presentation is based on a single case, it is intended to alert patients and physicians to a method of improving the lot of patients with PBS. In this patient, the result was very satisfactory. From being unable to move his trunk as a schoolboy before the surgical procedure, postoperatively he was able to participate in all school activities. As an adult, he is fully active and is a lead guitarist in a band. His excretory functions are normal and the scoliosis, present when first seen, has not progressed. It is suggested that consideration be given to the management of the abdominal wall deficiency in PBS by the transposition of muscle(s), because no alternative effective treatment directed to restoring absent muscle function appears to exist. Because the operative procedure is well tested and successful in adult patients who lose their abdominal wall musculature, the dissemination of this data appears to be necessary. ( info)

10/115. Prune-belly syndrome: therapeutic options including in utero placement of a vesicoamniotic shunt.

    The prune-belly syndrome (PBS) consists of abdominal wall distention with deficiency of the abdominal wall musculature, urinary tract abnormalities, and cryptorchidism. The impaired drainage of the bladder leads to oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia. We present 4 cases of PBS diagnosed by prenatal sonography. In 2 cases, vesicoamniotic shunt therapy was not indicated because of a poor prognosis based on sonographic and laboratory findings; the pregnancies were terminated. In another case, treatment was not performed because of a twin pregnancy, and the neonate with PBS died the day of delivery by cesarean section at 31 weeks' menstrual age. In the other case, vesicoamniotic shunt therapy was successfully performed, and a healthy child was delivered. Several conditions must be met for vesicoamniotic shunt therapy to have a good chance of success: the karyotype must be normal, other malformations must be excluded by careful sonographic examination, and renal function must be normal, as determined by serial analyses of fetal urine. Generally, the shunt should be inserted as early as possible. ( info)
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