Cases reported "Pseudarthrosis"

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1/45. forearm pseudarthrosis--neurofibromatosis: case report.

    A 3 1/2-year-old white girl with neurofibromatosis sustained left radius and ulna fractures. The radius was sclerotic with no medullary canal at the fracture site, and the ulna was hypoplastic distal to the fracture. The fractures failed to unite when immobilized in a long arm plaster cast for 5 months and pseudarthrosis developed. Three subsequent operative attempts to obtain union of the pseudarthrosis by means of internal fixation and bone grafting over the next 30 months were also unsuccessful, and the pseudarthrosis persisted. The forearm was supported in a custom molded leather brace until the child was 13 1/2 years old and had reached skeletal maturity. Osseous union was then operatively obtained using dual onlay tibial cortical and cancellous bone grafts. There has been no recurrence of the pseudarthrosis 3 years and 2 months after bone grafting. The author recommends postponing surgical attempts to achieve union of the forearm bone pseudarthrosis associated with neurofibromatosis until the patient reaches skeletal maturity.
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2/45. Intravascular migration of fractured sternal wire presenting with hemoptysis.

    We present a rare complication of median sternotomy in which a segment of fractured sternal wire punctured the heart, embolized to the right lung, and eroded into a bronchus causing massive hemoptysis. It was safely removed through a median sternotomy. Sternal wire fracture or migration is diagnosed easily on chest roentgenograms, but frequently goes unnoticed. Sternal wire failure can be managed nonoperatively; however, repair is indicated if fractured wires are displaced or potentially migratory.
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3/45. Operative stabilization of a flail chest six years after injury.

    We report a case of operative stabilization of an incompetent upper chest wall 6 years following flail chest. The indications for stabilization were chronic pain and dyspnea associated with rib malunion and loss of hemithorax volume. At operation, multiple pseudoarthroses were encountered and partial resection of ribs three and four was required. Malleable plates were used to bridge the gaps created by the resection and were secured in place with sternal wire. The patient reported a dramatic relief of symptoms and, at 18 months postoperatively, continues to work full-time on his cattle ranch essentially pain-free.
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4/45. Non-union in fractures of the humeral shaft.

    Twenty-nine patients with non-union of the humeral shaft, who were treated in 3 major Vancouver hospitals, were studied. Reasons for non-union, effectiveness of various treatment methods, and complications are discussed. Fractures occurring in the middle third of the humeral shaft, comminuted or open fractures and those treated early by open reduction, are more prone to non-union. Nearly 50% of the patients with non-union were chronic alcoholics. Compression plating with cancellous bone grafting gave the best rate of healing. However, both early and late operative treatment gave a relatively high complication rate.
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5/45. Bilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropathy after lumbar spine surgery.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) in a healthy young patient after lumbar spine surgery which was initially diagnosed as functional visual loss. DESIGN: Observational case report. PARTICIPANT: A 33-year-old woman who experienced visual loss in the immediate postoperative period after a lumbar spine fusion. TESTING: Serial visual field testing and fundus examinations, ERG. RESULTS: Bilateral PION was confirmed 2 months postoperatively with the development of bilateral optic disc pallor and a normal ERG. CONCLUSION: Young patients without vascular risk factors may develop bilateral PION after otherwise uncomplicated lumbar spine surgery. In subjects complaining of visual loss in the postoperative period who have a normal fundus and normal neuroimaging, a diagnosis of PION should be suspected, and close follow-up is warranted.
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6/45. Congenital pseudarthrosis.

    Five cases of congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle were treated with open reduction and fixation with appropriate-sized contoured plates and screws. Iliac bone grafts were used to bridge the gap in four patients; local bone graft was used in the fifth patient. Consolidation was noted an average of 3 months postoperatively in all five cases. The plate and screws were removed in all patients at an average of 16 months postoperatively. Average length of follow-up for the five patients is 4 years. Roentgenograms demonstrate that the clavicle has continued to grow normally. All five patients have pain-free full range of motion and are engaged in unrestricted activities.
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7/45. Accident-induced late complaint of odontoid nonunion.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case of accident-induced late complaint of odontoid nonunion is reported. OBJECTIVES: To report a rare case of accident-induced late complaint of odontoid nonunion and to discuss operative techniques of stabilization. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The literature is reviewed. methods.: A 60-year-old man sustained a neck injury with incomplete transverse lesion after a traffic accident. A loosening of odontoid nonunion with displacement 40 years after primary trauma was noted. RESULTS: Surgical treatment of the odontoid nonunion was undertaken to perform anterior screw fixation and additional posterior C1-C2 arthrodesis according to Gallie or Brooks. The patient wore a cervical brace for 6 weeks and underwent physiotherapy. Neurologic deficit decreased after surgery. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case of accident-induced loosening of odontoid nonunion. Anterior screw fixation and posterior C1-C2 arthrodesis achieved stable fixation.
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8/45. Allograft bone in spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this long-term study was to determine the efficacy of allograft bone for spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Prior studies comparing allograft and autograft have been short term. methods: This multicenter retrospective study was carried out on 111 patients with 132 total curves fused for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Minimum follow-up was 5 years (average 72 months). A variety of segmental instrumentation was used, with most being dual-rod, multiple-hook constructs. RESULTS: Average preoperative curve was 59 degrees with immediate correction to 29 degrees (51%) and final follow-up of 32.24 degrees (45.4%). Average loss of correction was 3.5 degrees (5.9%). There were three pseudarthroses, one infection, and no rod breakage. CONCLUSION: pseudarthrosis rate of 2.7% and loss of correction of 5.9% are comparable with or better than those in previous reports using autogenous bone graft and either segmental or nonsegmental instrumentation.
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9/45. Posterior transcanal lumbar interbody fusion for septic vertebral fracture pseudarthrosis and sitting imbalance.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new method to treat septic pseudarthrosis of the lumbar spine via a transcanal approach. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Septic pseudarthrosis of the spine after multiple unsuccessful anterior and posterior surgeries for vertebral fracture represents a challenge for spine surgeons. methods: Septic pseudarthrosis associated with dorsal fistula developed in a 40-year-old paraplegic man after unsuccessful combined anterior and posterior instrumentation for L3-burst fracture and sagittal sitting imbalance caused by collapsing spine. RESULTS: The instrumentation was removed together with meticulous pseudarthrosis debridement, fistula excision, and intravenous antibiotics plus continuous irrigation. Three months later, the pseudarthrosis area was approached via a posterior transcanal route because of the preceding multiple anterior transperitoneal and retroperitoneal surgeries. Posterior interbody instrumentation and fusion were performed with titanium mesh cages filled with autologous iliac bone graft. Pedicle screw-rod instrumentation was additionally applied to reinforce the interbody fusion and restore lumbar lordosis. Following this operation, the patient was ambulated with a custom made plastic jacket in his wheelchair. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient regained his sitting ability progressively. Four months later, the blood count analysis was within normal limits. Radiologically, there was a complete fusion at the level of instrumentation, while the preoperative lost lumbar lordosis was sufficiently restored. The patient was reemployed 6 months after surgery in his previous work in a sitting position, and, during the last observation 4 years later, he had normal labor analysis and lumbar lordosis. CONCLUSION: This extremely rare case focuses on the use of the transcanal approach to treat adequately lumbar septic pseudarthrosis and restore lumbar lordosis in definitively paraplegic patients in whom no anterior approach can be used.
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10/45. Anterior corpectomy and fusion with fibular strut grafts for multilevel cervical myelopathy.

    OBJECT: The authors conducted a study to investigate the long-term results and postoperative complications of a new surgical technique, fibular strut graft-assisted anterior corpectomy and fusion for multilevel (> four) cervical myelopathy. Multilevel anterior corpectomy and subsequent strut graft placement is considered a challenging procedure because of complications relating to graft dislodgment, pseudarthrosis, greater operative duration, and increased blood loss. methods: The study comprised 100 patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent anterior corpectomy and fusion and fibular strut graft placement at more than four disc space levels between 1989 and 1998. Single-screw fixation was used in conjunction with the autologous strut graft. Preoperative and postoperative plain radiographs, computerized tomography myelograms, and magnetic resonance images were obtained for assessment of fusion status. All complications and outcomes were analyzed based on clinical records to evaluate the results of the technique. There were no cases of graft dislodgment. The graft union rate was 85%. Analysis of clinical data showed that pseudarthrosis had no adverse effect on the clinical results. Adjacent-level disc degeneration occurred in 12% of patients, but in all cases the patients were asymptomatic. In 9% of cases C-5 palsy was observed but it recovered spontaneously. There were no infections and no case of neurological deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: With this new graft technique, graft dislodgment, the major complication associated with strut graft surgery, was resolved completely. This simple technique involving single-screw fixation provided good results when used in conjunction with anterior decompression and strut graft fixation with a very low incidence of complications.
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