Cases reported "Psoriasis"

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1/4. Graft vs autoimmunity following allogeneic non-myeloablative blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia and severe systemic psoriasis and psoriatic polyarthritis.

    OBJECTIVE: No specific therapy exists for autoimmune diseases caused by self-reactive lymphocytes. As shown in experimental animals, which led to pilot clinical studies, elimination of self-reactive lymphocytes can be accomplished with high-dose chemoradiotherapy, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, by re-establishment of unresponsiveness to self antigens of newly generated lymphocytes, due to a mechanism of central clonal deletion. We hypothesized that self-reactive lymphocytes causing autoimmune disease may be successfully eliminated by highly immunosuppressive yet not necessarily myeloablative conditioning in conjunction with allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation, since immunocompetent alloreactive lymphocytes of donor origin can effectively eliminate residual host-type hematopoietic cells, self-reactive lymphocytes included, by a mechanism that resembles graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effects. The present report is an attempt to confirm the existence of graft-vs-autoimmunity (GVA) effects in parallel with amplification of the alloreactive potential of donor lymphocytes following allogeneic non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation (NST). methods: We identified a patient with severe psoriatic arthritis who also had philadelphia (bcr/abl) positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and therefore was fully eligible for NST. Both diseases responded initially to non-myeloablative conditioning involving fludarabine 30 mg/m2 x 6, anti-T-lymphocyte globulin 10 mg/kg X 4, and busulfan 4 mg/kg x 2. RESULTS: The initial NST procedure was uneventful and resulted in elimination of all signs of autoimmunity (psoriasis and arthritis). recurrence of polyarthritis and exacerbation of psoriasis were observed in parallel with a significant increase in the proportion of male (host) dna, and 5% of the mitoses were bcr/abl positive, indicating an increase in the clone of CML. Both bcr/abl-positive cells identified by RT-PCR and psoriatic arthritis were successfully eliminated following discontinuation of anti-GVHD prophylaxis with cyclosporine A (CSA), which resulted in activation of the alloreactive potential of donor T cells, accompanied by graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), suggesting the existence of GVA effects. RT-PCR for bcr/abl remains consistently negative for nearly 3 years, and all dna remains donor type. CONCLUSIONS: The response of autoimmune disease manifestations to GVA effects in parallel with elimination of all host-derived hematopoietic cells supports our working hypothesis that autoimmune diseases caused by self-reactive lymphocytes may be effectively treated by elimination of alloreactive self-reactive lymphocytes following induction of host-vs-graft tolerance, in analogy with replacement of malignant or genetically abnormal host cells following DLI. It is therefore suggested that intentional GVA effects may be inducible by DLI following a conventional or preferably safer non-myeloablative regimen in recipients with life-threatening autoimmune diseases resistant to conventional modalities. Adoptive immunotherapy of autoimmunity may thus involve a two-step procedure: first, inducing host-vs-graft and graft-vs-host transplantation tolerance through a transient stage of mixed chimerism; second, inducing controlled GVA effects, initially by discontinuation of CSA and then, if indicated, by late outpatient DLI to eradicate residual hematopoietic cells of host origin.
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keywords = chimerism
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2/4. Will mixed chimerism cure autoimmune diseases after a nonmyeloablative stem cell transplant?

    BACKGROUND: Mixed chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been shown to cure a number of genetic disorders in both the clinical and experimental settings. Although encouraging results have been reported from animal experiments, the role of mixed chimerism in eliminating autoimmune disorders is not clear. methods: A 50-year-old man with extensive psoriasis received an allogeneic transplant from his brother after nonmyeloablative conditioning with fludarabine, melphalan, and Campath-1H for relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The chimerism status and the immunological recovery after the transplant were serially monitored. RESULTS: Twenty-one months after the transplant, the patient continues to be in complete remission from psoriasis and lymphoma with stable mixed chimerism (30% to 40% donor cells), despite significant recovery of T-cell subsets and antigen-specific response. CONCLUSIONS: If mixed chimerism can be achieved safely with novel low-intensity conditioning regimens and results in sustained remission of autoimmune diseases, allogeneic transplantation may become a realistic therapy in the management of some patients with autoimmune disease.
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keywords = chimerism
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3/4. Induction of graft-versus-autoimmune (GVA) disease effect against refractory psoriasis by complete donor-type chimerism and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    A 67-year-old man with AML, who had a 21-year history of psoriasis without remission, received a reduced-intensity transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling. The preparative regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine and methotrexate. psoriasis was completely resolved on day 18. The subsequent clinical course was uneventful until day 42, when psoriasis recurred at the same sites as before RIST. Peripheral blood examined on day 63 showed mixed chimerism with 54% recipient type. cyclosporine was rapidly tapered off over the next 2 weeks. On day 90, 100% donor-type chimerism was confirmed. Subsequently, psoriasis improved simultaneously with the occurrence of mucositis and rash as a manifestation of GVHD. Scattered erythematous patches of psoriasis disappeared again by day 105. We initiated 0.5 mg/kg prednisolone on day 119, and resumed cyclosporine on day 133. At 7 months after RIST, he still suffers from chronic GVHD, but his psoriasis remains in remission for the first time in 21 years. The anti-psoriasis effect of the conditioning is mild and transient, while the graft-versus-autoimmunity effect, related to the induction of complete donor-type chimerism and GVHD, is more profound and persisting. A graft-versus-autoimmunity effect lies in the delicate balance between alloimmunity and immunosuppressant used for GVHD prophylaxis/treatment.
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ranking = 7
keywords = chimerism
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4/4. Long-term outcome of autoimmune disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term outcome of autoimmune disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and its relationship to hemopoietic chimerism. methods: Three previously described patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who underwent allogeneic BMT for therapy-related severe aplastic anemia and 1 new patient with psoriasis who received BMT for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were followed up. Molecular studies were performed to assess hemopoietic and immune reconstitution in 3 cases. RESULTS: In 2 of the RA patients, the RA remained in remission without treatment, with nonprogressive disease, 11 and 13 years after BMT. The third patient with RA had a relapse 2 years after BMT, although the previously aggressive disease subsequently ran an attenuated course with treatment-free remission for the last 11 years. Comparison with other cases of RA suggests that graft-versus-host disease may influence the long-term outcome, perhaps through ongoing inhibition of the immune system. In the patient with psoriasis, BMT was followed by remission, but the psoriatic rash recurred and arthropathy developed 12 months later. The psoriasis and arthropathy remained active 4.5 years post-BMT, although the CML remained in remission. Molecular studies in the 2 patients whose RA remained in continued remission and in the patient with psoriasis that relapsed confirmed complete donor hemopoietic reconstitution. CONCLUSION: Long-term followup of autoimmune disease after allogeneic transplantation confirmed cure of the autoimmune disease in some, but eventual relapse in others. The occurrence of relapse despite complete donor hemopoietic reconstitution is evidence for the development of de novo, as opposed to persistent, disease, and is possibly related to intrinsic susceptibility of the transplanted stem cells or to host factors. There may be a relationship between remission of autoimmune disease and graft-versus-host reaction. These findings have relevance for the evolving application of stem cell transplantation as a therapy for autoimmune diseases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chimerism
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