Cases reported "Psychomotor Agitation"

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1/210. A case of agitated catatonia.

    Agitation is one of the diagnostic features of catatonia in the DSM IV classification, but permanent forms of agitated catatonia have occasionally been described. We report the case of a 43-year-old man who had already suffered from undifferentiated schizophrenia for 7 years, and in whom we diagnosed agitated catatonia. While our patient was being treated with a neuroleptic during a second episode of paranoia, a state of agitation was observed which persisted for a further 8 months. During this period, he was treated with several different neuroleptics and benzodiazepines, either alone or in association, without any improvement. No organic cause was found. He was then transferred to our electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) unit, with a diagnosis of schizophrenic agitation resistant to drug therapy. ECT was begun, and he was only given droperidol in case of agitation and alimemazine for insomnia, neither of which had any effect. In view of his persistent agitation without any purpose, echolalia and echopraxia, stereotyped movements with mannerisms and marked mimicking and grimacing, we diagnosed him as having agitated catatonia. After the fourth session of ECT, we decided to stop all treatment and gave him lorazepam at a dose of 12.5 mg daily. Twenty-four hours later, all symptoms of agitation had disappeared. In our opinion, permanent catatonic agitation is not rare. In our case, the neuroleptic treatment maintained and may even have worsened the symptomatology. lorazepam can be used as a therapeutic test for this type of agitation, especially if it does not respond to neuroleptics. This also allows the patient to be sedated rapidly and effectively, thus preventing him from injuring himself further. ( info)

2/210. anxiety, vocalization, and agitation following peripheral nerve block with ropivacaine.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular toxicity are potential side effects of local anesthetics. However, ropivacaine has been reported to be less CNS toxic than bupivacaine in human volunteers. methods: We describe three cases of peripheral nerve blockade with ropivacaine that resulted in unusual symptoms of CNS toxicity. RESULTS: In three patients, unexpected behavioral changes occurred during administration of ropivacaine. The patients became extremely agitated, anxious, and screamed, and they did not respond to verbal commands. CONCLUSION: This case report shows that ropivacaine may cause CNS toxicity that differs from classical signs of local anesthetic-induced toxicity. This effect might be related to the unique structure of ropivacaine, which is formulated in an S-enantiomer preparation. It has been shown that S-enantiomers bind differently to receptors in both the CNS and cardiovascular systems. This property may account for the disinhibition of select neural pathways that are specifically involved in mediation of anxiety and aggression. ( info)

3/210. Angel trumpet lily poisoning in five adolescents: clinical findings and management.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical features and management of Angel trumpet lily poisoning in adolescents. METHODOLOGY: Case notes of five adolescent males who presented to the emergency department of a teaching hospital were reviewed. RESULTS: All five boys ingested a mixture of coca-cola and a brew prepared by boiling the leaves and flowers of the plant. They presented to the emergency department with various degrees of agitation and confusion and specific clinical signs. All were treated with charcoal and cathartics and discharged after 36 h. CONCLUSIONS: Due to its hallucinogenic effects, abuse of Angel trumpet lily is not uncommon and should be suspected in adolescents presenting with altered mental state and hallucinations in conjunction with other anticholinergic symptoms and signs. ( info)

4/210. Treatment of vocally disruptive behaviour of multifactorial aetiology.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment of vocally disruptive behaviour (VDB) of multifactorial aetiology. METHOD: Three case reports were used to illustrate the treatment of multifactorial VDB. RESULTS: A biopsychosocial assessment is required to identify the different aetiologies involved and the way they interact. Acute medical and psychiatric factors may demand that interventions are introduced simultaneously rather than in succession. CONCLUSION: Successful interventions require the combination of biopsychosocial strategies tailored to the individual case with realistic goals that include the acceptance of a residual level of VDB as a reasonable outcome. ( info)

5/210. 'Climbing the walls' ICU psychosis: myth or reality?

    The extent of the effect of the ICU environment on the psychological functioning on the ICU patient is explored. There is a need to understand all potential causes of disruption in psychological functioning in ICU patients. Co-ordination of all care carried out by multi-disciplinary team can help re-orientate patients and re-establish normal routines. ( info)

6/210. Phenomenology and treatment of agitation.

    Agitation is a troublesome, common symptom in major depression that can be difficult to manage. It is sometimes a side effect of antidepressant treatment and may occasionally represent a mixed bipolar episode. If agitation fails to respond to an antidepressant alone, treatment may be augmented with a benzodiazepine, a neuroleptic, or lithium. Preliminary evidence indicates that divalproex, which has been found useful for bipolar disorder and for agitation associated with Alzheimer's disease, may also be effective for agitated depression. A controlled trial is now underway. ( info)

7/210. The use of music and colour theory as a behaviour modifier.

    For many centuries various aspects of healing have been linked to the use of the arts, in particular music and colour because of their innate ability to bring about a mental, emotional and physical calmness. Although much has been written on the use of colour and music as relaxants specifically within a nursing/medical context, there appears to be little information available as to why music and colour have this calming effect. This article examines music and colour as relaxants by briefly describing the neurological and physical mechanisms that bring about the effect of relaxation. This brief exploration is placed within the context of learning disability care. The aim is to provide ideas for a more peaceful and relaxing environment for an adult with learning disabilities who also has autism and exhibits severe challenging behaviour. The results of a small case study and implications for other areas of nursing are discussed. ( info)

8/210. Successful antidepressant treatment for five terminally ill cancer patients with major depression, suicidal ideation and a desire for death.

    In the debate on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, we have to exclude terminally ill patients in whom the desire for death is caused by major depression. However, it is still not clear to what degree major depression can be treated by psychiatric intervention in this setting. We evaluated the effect of antidepressant treatment in terminally ill cancer patients. Six cancer patients with suicidal ideas thought to be due to major depression were treated with tricyclic antidepressants. Three had requested terminal sedation to relieve them from their suffering. The median survival of five of these patients was 4 weeks after diagnosis; one was lost to follow-up. The efficacy of the antidepressant treatment was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression (HRSD). One week after the start of treatment with antidepressants, five of the six patients showed a marked improvement in their mood and showed no further suicidal thoughts or requests for terminal sedation. The average reduction in the HRSD score was 23.4 points (14-38; SD = 9. 9). Antidepressant treatment can be effective in alleviating the desire for death due to major depression, even in terminally ill cancer patients. ( info)

9/210. Ictus expectoratus: a sign of complex partial seizures usually of non-dominant temporal lobe origin.

    Spitting (or expectoration) is rarely seen with seizures. In Western society, spitting is a striking behavioral aberration. A 13-year-old child had intermittent agitated behavior, episodes of rage, spitting and confusion lasting up to 2 minutes. He stood up in church and told the preacher to 'shut up and sit down'. epilepsy monitoring revealed spitting with polysharp and spike seizures resolved over the right temporal lobe. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma. Spitting seizures resolved after resection. Ictal expectoration is rare. It may occur with epigastric aura, nausea, chewing, swallowing and fumbling. literature review disclosed 17 cases, 12 of which arose from the non-dominant hemisphere. Most regressed with surgery and anticonvulsants. ( info)

10/210. Treatment of dementia-associated agitation with gabapentin.

    The authors describe the use of gabapentin in the treatment of 4 outpatients with dementia-associated agitation. On the basis of clinical case reports and the Overt Agitation Severity Scale, all 4 patients had reduced agitation with gabapentin. Three of 4 patients were successfully titrated to a full dose of 2,400mg/day. These findings suggest a possible role for gabapentin in the behavioral management of patients with dementia. ( info)
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