Cases reported "Psychomotor Agitation"

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11/210. Sevoflurane mask anesthesia for urgent tracheostomy in an uncooperative trauma patient with a difficult airway.

    PURPOSE: Proper care of the trauma patient often includes tracheal intubation to insure adequate ventilation and oxygenation, protect the airway from aspiration, and facilitate surgery. airway management can be particularly complex when there are facial bone fractures, head injury and cervical spine instability. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 29-yr-old intoxicated woman suffered a motor vehicle accident. Injuries consisted of multiple abrasions to her head, forehead, and face, right temporal lobe hemorrhage, and complex mandibular fractures with displacement. mouth opening was <10 mm. blood pressure was 106/71 mm Hg, pulse 109, respirations 18, temperature 37.3 degrees C, SpO2 100%. Chest and pelvic radiographs were normal and the there was increased anterior angulation of C4-C5 on the cervical spine film. Drug screen was positive for cocaine and alcohol. The initial plan was to perform awake tracheostomy with local anesthesia. However, the patient was uncooperative despite sedation and infiltration of local anesthesia. Sevoflurane, 1%, inspired in oxygen 100%, was administered via face mask. The concentration of sevoflurane was gradually increased to 4%, and loss of consciousness occurred within one minute. The patient breathed spontaneously and required gentle chin lift and jaw thrust. A cuffed tracheostomy tube was surgically inserted without complication. Blood gas showed pH 7.40, PCO2 35 mm Hg, PO2 396 mm Hg, hematocrit 33.6%. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage was negative. Pulmonary aspiration did not occur. Oxygenation and ventilation were maintained throughout the procedure. CONCLUSION: Continuous mask ventilation with sevoflurane is an appropriate technique when confronted with an uncooperative trauma patient with a difficult airway. ( info)

12/210. torsades de pointes secondary to intravenous haloperidol after coronary bypass grafting surgery.

    PURPOSE: Postoperative delirium occurs in about 2% of patients undergoing major cardiac surgery including coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). haloperidol (Sabex, Boucherville, canada) is a drug commonly used in the intensive care unit for the treatment of delirium and is usually considered safe even at high doses and is rarely implicated in the development of malignant ventricular arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes. The purpose of this study is to report such a complication of use of haloperidol after myocardial revascularization. CLINICAL FEATURES: The patient reported underwent uneventful triple bypass surgery. Administration of large intravenous doses of haloperidol was necessary for control of psychomotor agitation due to delirium. torsades de pointes occurred in the absence of QT prolongation on the third postoperative day following use of the drug with no other obvious etiological factor. CONCLUSION: awareness of this rare complication is key to judicious use of this drug in the post CABG patient in whom such an arrhythmia may have very deleterious consequences because of the underlying cardiac condition. ( info)

13/210. Managing acutely disturbed behaviour.

    Managing acutely disturbed behaviour is difficult, particularly in environments which are not designed for dealing with such conduct. An understanding of factors which can lead to this behaviour and clear management policies and procedures are needed. ( info)

14/210. Effects of individualized versus classical "relaxation" music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    confusion and agitation in elderly patients are crucial problems. This study tested Gerdner's mid-range theory of individualized music intervention for agitation. An experimental repeated measures pretest-posttest crossover design compared the immediate and residual effects of individualized music to classical "relaxation" music relative to baseline on the frequency of agitated behaviors in elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). Thirty-nine subjects were recruited from six long-term-care facilities in iowa. The sample consisted of 30 women and 9 men (mean age 82 years) with severe cognitive impairment. Baseline data were collected for 3 weeks. Findings from the Modified Hartsock music Preference Questionnaire guided the selection of individualized music. Group A (n = 16) received individualized music for 6 weeks followed by a 2-week "washout" period and 6 weeks of classical "relaxation" music. Group B (n = 23) received the same protocol but in reverse order. music interventions were presented for 30 minutes, two times per week. The Modified Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory measured the dependent variable. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a significant reduction in agitation during and following individualized music compared to classical music. This study expands science by testing and supporting a theoretically based intervention for agitation in persons with ADRD. ( info)

15/210. Corrected QT interval prolongation associated with intravenous haloperidol in acute coronary syndromes.

    We report on three patients with acute coronary syndromes who developed QT interval prolongation associated with intravenous haloperidol use. One developed ventricular fibrillation. We also review 21 such patients from the literature. haloperidol should be used with caution and QT intervals monitored closely in patients with coronary ischemia who may be prone to ventricular ectopy. ( info)

16/210. Relation between cholinesterase inhibitor and Pisa syndrome.

    We report two patients who developed Pisa syndrome after treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors--cognition-enhancing novel agents for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cholinergic excess could be another factor in Pisa syndrome, especially in cholinergically-imbalanced Alzheimer's disease. ( info)

17/210. citalopram for verbal agitation in patients with dementia.

    Various behaviors can be associated with dementing disorders. Management of these behaviors is often challenging to caregivers and clinicians. Verbal agitation such as talking constantly, screaming, and repeating phrases and noises is one of the most frequently encountered behaviors in the long-term care setting. We report two cases in which verbal agitation favorably responded to citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We also discuss some other factors possibly associated with this response. Nonetheless, citalopram appears to be an added option in the treatment of verbal agitation in demented patients. ( info)

18/210. "Herbal Ecstasy": a case series of adverse reactions.

    AIMS: To report five cases of adverse effects associated with the ingestion of "Herbal Ecstasy" tablets and discuss possible mechanisms of toxicity. METHOD: Composition of the "Herbal Ecstasy" tablets was determined by discussions with distributors and with MEDSAFE: Reference to relevant texts and an internet and medline literature search was used to identify articles of interest RESULTS: Three patients complained of minor symptoms such as perceptual disturbances, anorexia, inability to sleep, dizziness, palpitations and paresthesia. A fourth patient presented with palpitations and ventricular bigeminy, and a fifth patient presented with headache, vomiting, and a hypertensive crisis. Different brands of "Herbal Ecstasy" have different compositions, some containing caffeine and kava, and one contained ephedrine. CONCLUSION: These five patients presented with adverse reactions to "Herbal Ecstasy" ranging from minor to major. knowledge of the possible mechanisms of toxicity will help plan therapy in cases of major toxicity. ( info)

19/210. Recognition and management of acute neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal motor and mental syndromes.

    After nearly 50 years of therapeutic application of neuroleptics, diagnosis and classification of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes still concentrate on their "neurological" (motor) aspects. Psychiatric (mental) aspects are in general - if at all - regarded as "secondary" to motor symptoms. Psychiatric side effects of neuroleptics (including psychotic exacerbations during neuroleptic treatment) have, however, anecdotally been reported since 1954 but never developed into a systematic classification. Accordingly, psychiatric manifestations of extrapyramidal side effects frequently are overlooked, misdiagnosed as psychotic deteriorations and treated by increased dosing of neuroleptics instead anticholinergics, which in addition are falsely suspected of bearing a high addictive potential and the risk of development of tardive dyskinesia. It is suggested that neuroleptic-induced basal ganglia dysfunction results in motor as well as mental extrapyramidal side effects, whose recognition and management is essential to achieve better tolerability of and thereby compliance with neuroleptic treatment. ( info)

20/210. Restlessness of respiration as a manifestation of akathisia: five case reports of respiratory akathisia.

    BACKGROUND: Akathisia is a feeling of subjective or inner restlessness, which causes excessive, semipurposeful movements, commonly in the legs. However, restlessness in respiration, which presents as dyspnea but is best characterized as the sensation of being unable to breathe in a relaxed manner, has never been reported. case reports: Five cases are reported in which dyspnea as a sign of akathisia followed the administration of antipsychotic medications. The clinical features of dyspnea were examined, and all patients manifested both subjective and objective restlessness. The dyspnea was characterized subjectively by the patients' inner feeling of restlessness in respiration, which was perceived as an inability to breathe in a leisurely, relaxed manner, and objectively as restless movements of respiration such as gasping or sighing. The dyspnea was momentarily suppressed when a patient took a quick, full breath to relieve the perceived restlessness and was exacerbated when the patient kept the respiration still. Response to medications commonly used in the treatment of akathisia was also examined in an open, uncontrolled therapeutic trial for each patient. The administration of such medications completely alleviated the respiratory restlessness. CONCLUSION: Restlessness in respiration, which clinically presents as dyspnea, may be a manifestation of akathisia. This type of akathisia could be referred to as respiratory akathisia. ( info)
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