Cases reported "Puberty, Precocious"

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1/7. A case of McCune-Albright syndrome with hyperthyroidism and vitamin d-resistant rickets.

    A girl aged 1 11/12 year with the unusual combination of McCune-Albright syndrome (polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cutaneous pigmentation and precocious puberty), hyperthyroidism and vitamin d-resistant rickets is described. Urinary estrogens are increased, while serum LH and FSH responses to LH-RH are subnormal. Thyroid hormone levels in serum and 131I thyroidal uptake are increased, while TSH response to TRH is decreased. serum phosphorus level is low and phosphate clearance high, while PTH is within normal range. Basal GH level and GH responses to various stimulations are high, but high basal GH is suppressed by oral glucose. The oral glucose tolerance test shows normal blood glucose with hypersecretion of insulin. These data suggest that the common pathogenesis of the various aspects of the syndrome is a hypersensitivity of the target organs, which include the pituitary, the thyroid, the gonads, the pancreatic islet cells and the proximal tubules of the kidney.
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2/7. Pituitary gonadotropin-independent male-limited autosomal dominant sexual precocity in nine generations: familial testotoxicosis.

    A recently described, distinct form of male sexual precocity is characterized by premature Leydig and germinal cell maturation in the absence of pituitary gonadotropin stimulation. Analysis of a nine-generation kindred with at least 28 affected males supports sex-limited autosomal dominant transmission. Three boys, with precocious sexual development at 1 to 4 years of age, had low basal plasma gonadotropin values without pubertal-type pulsatility and a minimal rise in luteinizing hormone after acute stimulation with luteinizing hormone releasing factor or its potent analog D-Trp6-Pro9-NEt-LRF, distinguishing them from boys with true precocious puberty. Two affected adults had a mature luteinizing hormone response to LRF. Testicular biopsies showed a progression of abnormalities in the seminiferous tubules from childhood to maturity; in one adult this disorder was associated with marked oligospermia and selective elevation of plasma follicle-stimulating hormone. The findings are consistent with an inherited intratesticular defect. Furthermore, the majority of cases of familial male sexual precocity seem to be examples of this disorder rather than central or true precocious puberty.
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3/7. Albright's syndrome with rickets.

    Four patients are reported who had Albright's syndrome, hypophosphatemia, and inappropriately low renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Three of the patients had radiologic evidence of rickets or osteomalacia, and the fourth had a bone biospy, which showed microradiographic evidence of a previous mineralization defect. serum parathormone values were elevated before treatment in two patients. Intravenous infusions of calcium in one patient, and of calcium and parathormone in a second patient, showed appropriate target-organ responsiveness. patients generally showed radiologic improvement of rickets after treatment with large doses of vitamin d, but such treatment failed to restore normal serum values of phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. It is postulated that a substance elaborated from the dysplastic bone may be interfering with phosphate reabsorption in the renal tubule.
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4/7. Gonadotropin-independent familial sexual precocity with premature Leydig and germinal cell maturation (familial testotoxicosis): effects of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist and medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy in four cases.

    Four boys with sexual precocity are described in whom pubertal concentrations of plasma testosterone were associated with premature Leydig and germinal cell maturation without activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotropin unit. Extensive laboratory evaluation localized the source of testosterone secretion to the testes, and testicular biopsy revealed maturation of leydig cells and spermatogenic elements. These events appear to be nongonadotropin-dependent in view of the absence of a pubertal pattern of pulsatile LH secretion, persistence of a prepubertal LH response to LRF even after long standing sexual precocity, prepubertal basal levels of LH and undetectable hCG, and the absence of biologically active LH-hCG by bioassay. Indirect immunofluorescence studies failed to demonstrate an immunoglobulin in the patients' sera that bound to leydig cells or seminiferous tubules of normal adult human testes. The potent LRF analog D-Trp6-Pro9-NEt-LRF did not result in suppression of plasma testosterone or Leydig cell function even after 3 months of daily treatment in two patients which provides additional support of pituitary gonadotropin independence and of the lack of a direct effect of the analog on Leydig cell function. Oral medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment in two patients was associated with a striking decrease in both plasma testosterone concentration and height velocity. In the only patient in whom a complete family history could be obtained (three of four patients were adopted), sexual precocity was noted in the maternal grandfather. As this familial syndrome is characterized by a prepubertal hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotropin unit and apparent gonadotropin-independent maturation of leydig cells and germinal epithelium, possibly due to an intratesticular inborn error, we propose the term "familial testotoxicosis" to describe this group of sexually precocious boys.
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5/7. Ovarian Sertoli cell tumors: a report of 10 cases.

    Ten Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary, which occurred in patients from 2 to 62 years of age (average 38 years), are reported. Two prepubertal patients presented because of isosexual precocity, and there was evidence of estrogenic stimulation of the endometrium in two postmenopausal women. The tumors were all Stage Ia and ranged from 0.8 to 17 cm in diameter. On microscopic examination five of them contained tubules that were predominantly hollow, and five, tubules that were predominantly solid. Two of the neoplasms in the latter group were of the lipid-rich type. Seven tumors were well differentiated, two were of intermediate differentiation, and one was poorly differentiated. The last tumor, which metastasized widely and was rapidly fatal, was the only clinically malignant tumor in the series.
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6/7. aromatase expression in human germinomas with possible biological effects.

    Gonadal aromatase expression has been demonstrated in human Leydig, granulosa, and thecal cells, but never in human germ cells. In an attempt to explain the unique occurrence of isosexual precocious puberty in a young girl with a hCG-secreting suprasellar germinoma, we demonstrated the presence of aromatase expression in the germ cell component of this tumor. Immunohistochemical staining for P450-aromatase and hCG using a peroxidase-labeled streptaviden-biotin technique was performed on tumor specimens from the above patient and from four other subjects with central nervous system germinoma. Cytoplasmic aromatase staining was present in the germinoma cells of four of five cases of central nervous system germinoma studied. Staining was absent in the lymphocytic element within the tumor and in negative control tissues. The demonstration of aromatase activity in the malignant element of human germinomas indicates that aromatase expression can occur in human germ cells after malignant transformation. This parallels the finding that the transformation of sertoli cells to sex cord tumor with annular tubules in Peutz Jeghers syndrome is associated with the induction of marked aromatase expression and systemic estrogen effect. We propose that tumor aromatase played a similar role in the unique occurrence of isosexual precocity in a girl with a suprasellar germinoma.
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7/7. sertoli cell tumor causing precocious puberty in a girl with peutz-jeghers syndrome.

    Distinctive ovarian and cervical tumors are associated with peutz-jeghers syndrome (PJS). The most common gynecological tumors in this syndrome are adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix and ovarian sex cord tumor, particularly sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT). Other kinds of ovarian tumors have been rarely reported in association of PJS, including Sertoli cell tumors. We report a case of a 4.5-year-old girl with PJS who presented with isosexual precocious puberty (IPP) due to ovarian lipid-rich sertoli cell tumor. In addition to estrinizing effect of the tumor, the patient had decidual reaction secondary to tumor-derived progesterone secretion. The literature on gonadal tumors in PJS is reviewed, including one previous report of ovarian lipid-rich sertoli cell tumor associated with this syndrome.
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