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1/42. Combination of membrane oxygenator support and pulmonary lavage for acute respiratory failure.

    A 24-year-old woman with chronic granulocytic leukemia and alveolar proteinosis required extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support for respiratory failure refractory to conventional therapy. During perfusion, each lung was lavaged with 10 L. of normal saline. The lavage led to marked clearing of the lungs and improvement in pulmonary function. Extracorporeal support was terminated successfully after 54 hours. The patient died 2 weeks later with bone marrow insufficiency and overwhelming sepsis. Pulmonary lavage is technically feasible during venovenous oxygenator bypass, and may be of value, since such lavage debrides alveoli as well as the bronchial tree. Because pulmonary lavage provides a possible means of improving pulmonary function, it seems worthy of consideration as an adjunct to membrane oxygenator support.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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2/42. Exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor administration for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by the accumulation of lipoproteinaceous material within the alveoli. Recent data suggest that granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be involved in the pathogenesis of PAP. To extend this understanding and clarify whether GM-CSF replacement confers benefit, we report the preliminary results for the first four patients in an open-label study of GM-CSF treatment for moderate exacerbation of PAP. All four patients had idiopathic PAP confirmed by open lung biopsy. Subcutaneous GM-CSF was self-administered once daily for 12 wk (dose escalation from 3 to 9 microg/kg/d). Response was assessed from symptom scores, arterial blood gas measurements, pulmonary function testing, and chest radiographs. Three of the four patients experienced symptomatic, physiologic, and radiographic improvement with GM-CSF. Responders experienced sufficient improvement in oxygenation as to eliminate the need for supplemental oxygen, and one patient was removed from the waiting list for lung transplantation. Improved oxygenation was not apparent until 8 to 12 wk after the start of therapy. Notably, expected increases in the peripheral white blood cell count did not occur, suggesting lack of a hematopoietic response to exogenous GM-CSF in PAP. We conclude that GM-CSF appears to benefit a subset of patients with adult PAP, and may represent an alternative to whole-lung lavage in treating the disease.
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ranking = 516396.1512653
keywords = macrophage
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3/42. Hyperfunction of neutrophils in a patient with BCR/ABL negative chronic myeloid leukemia: a case report with in vitro studies.

    BACKGROUND: Among patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a small percentage lack a BCR/ABL fusion gene, a landmark of CML. Their clinical features are distinct from patients with BCR/ABL positive CML, although to the authors' knowledge the pathogenesis to date has been unknown. methods: A 50-year-old female patient with BCR/ABL negative CML and multiple complications of graves disease, sweet syndrome, and a fatal pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is described in the current study. To show a clonal origin of her myeloid cells, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) assay was applied. Because the patient developed a progressive and fatal neutrophilia, a screening of cell functions in neutrophilic lineage, including in vitro colony assay of her bone marrow cells and production of superoxide and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by blood neutrophils was performed. RESULTS: Southern blot analysis based on the polymorphism of the HPRT gene was compatible with monoclonality of her neutrophils. The patient had an increased amount of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells, which formed colonies in response to a very low dose (0.1 ng/mL) of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. in vitro production of superoxide and IL-8, which is an inducer of positive chemotaxis of neutrophils, by her peripheral neutrophils was markedly augmented. Her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid also contained a significant amount of IL-8 as well as an unusual infiltration of neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: In the patient in the current study, hyperfunction of the neutrophils might have contributed to the onset of PAP as well as sweet syndrome and to the pathogenesis of BCR/ABL negative CML.
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ranking = 103281.23025306
keywords = macrophage, bone
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4/42. Focal congenital alveolar proteinosis associated with abnormal surfactant protein B messenger rna.

    Two siblings presented with typical clinical features of congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Necropsy of one sibling revealed scattered foci of the diagnostic histologic changes in the lung tissue. In contrast to infantile and adult PAP, focal distribution is uncommon in congenital PAP. Defective expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor was ruled out. The surfactant protein B (SP-B) content in the lung tissue of the autopsied patient was low, and a deletion in the SP-B messenger rna was detected. We speculate that the PAP in our patients was related to the reduced quantity and/or to the altered quality of SP-B.
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ranking = 103279.23025306
keywords = macrophage
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5/42. pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a complete response to GM-CSF therapy.

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare condition traditionally requiring treatment with whole lung lavage. The case is presented of a young man who obtained complete remission following treatment with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, a new treatment option.
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ranking = 103279.23025306
keywords = macrophage
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6/42. Our new understanding of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: what an internist needs to know.

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP; the accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in the alveoli) has a number of infectious and environmental causes but is usually idiopathic. The clinical presentation of PAP is nonspecific; thus, the diagnosis is frequently missed, leading to inappropriate therapy and unnecessary morbidity. Recent advances suggest that a deficiency in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity may lead to this surfactant accumulation. Anti-GM-CSF antibodies have been found in PAP patients, fueling speculation that PAP may be an autoimmune disease. These findings are being translated into novel forms of therapy.
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ranking = 103279.23025306
keywords = macrophage
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7/42. BAL findings in a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis successfully treated with GM-CSF.

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) has recently been recognised as a disease of impaired alveolar macrophage function caused by neutralising anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating (anti-GM-CSF) autoantibodies. Subcutaneous recombinant human GM-CSF is a novel treatment for PAP, but its mechanism of action is unclear. methods: Clinical, functional, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings were prospectively evaluated in a patient with PAP treated with daily subcutaneous GM-CSF 8 microg/kg for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Treatment resulted in improvements in dyspnoea, lung function, and peak cycle ergometry performance. In serum and BAL fluid the titre of anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies was raised at baseline and markedly reduced on treatment. At baseline the BAL fluid cellular profile showed a decrease in the absolute number and the percentage of macrophages (50%) and an increase in lymphocytes (45%), predominantly CD4 . This cellular distribution remained unchanged after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment while macrophages became morphologically normal and functionally improved. Extracellular proteinaceous material completely disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically successful treatment of PAP with GM-CSF was associated with a profound reduction in GM-CSF neutralising autoantibodies, improvement in alveolar macrophage morphology and function, but persistent BAL lymphocytosis.
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ranking = 516396.1512653
keywords = macrophage
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8/42. Analysis of the GM-CSF and GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common beta chain in a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common beta chain (beta c receptor) in an adult patient with idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), so as to demonstrate the possible association of the GM-CSF and beta c receptor with the pathogenesis of human PAP. methods: The GM-CSF levels were measured with a commercial ELISA kit (sensitivity 5 pg/ml) and the beta c receptor expression on the cell surface was detected by flow cytometry analysis. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was employed to detect the expression of the GM-CSF mRNA and the beta c receptor mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages. The entire coding regions of the GM-CSF cDNA and the beta c receptor cDNA were sequenced by the Sanger dideoxy-mediated chain termination method to detect possible mutations. RESULTS: The patient with PAP failed to release the GM-CSF protein either from circulating mononuclear cells or from alveolar macrophages. The expression of the GM-CSF mRNA was normal after the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide, whereas a point mutation at position 382 of the GM-CSF cDNA from "T" to "C" was revealed by cDNA sequencing, which caused a change in amino acid 117 of the protein from isoleucine to threonine. The beta c receptor expression on the cell surface was normal, and the beta c receptor mRNA expression and the sequence of the entire coding region of the beta c receptor were also normal. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased GM-CSF production is associated with the pathogenesis of human PAP. A point mutation of the GM-CSF cDNA may contribute to the decreased GM-CSF production in our adult PAP patient. The mutation of the beta c receptor in some of paediatric patients with PAP may not be a common problem in adult patients.
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ranking = 309837.69075918
keywords = macrophage
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9/42. Acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a heterogeneous disease that occasionally develops with hematological malignancy. However, PAP in association with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is quite rare. Here we present the first report of a patient who developed PAP after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 45-year-old female with AML underwent unrelated CBT. On day 2 after CBT she developed congestive heart failure with diffuse alveolar infiltrates in the bilateral lungs. Despite treatment, the alveolar infiltrates further increased with progression of multiple organ failure (MOF). She died from MOF before hematopoietic recovery on day 27. Post-mortem study revealed that massive amorphous materials positive for periodic acid-Schiff stain filled in the pulmonary alveoli. These findings led to a diagnosis of PAP. The bone marrow was hypocellular without the leukemic cells. The impaired immunity during the period of leukopenia as well as the impaired clearance of surfactant proteins might contribute to the development of PAP.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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10/42. Increased circulating CD16 CD14dim monocytes in a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by filling of the alveoli with a periodic acid-Schiff-positive proteinaceous material. Although the pathogenesis of primary or idiopathic PAP remains unknown, it has been proposed that a deficiency or loss of responsiveness of the monocyte/macrophage lineage to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is involved in PAP. Secondary PAP is associated with haematological malignancies, especially in myeloid disorders. Herein, we report on an adult with PAP associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The CD16 CD14dim monocytes comprise 5-10% of circulating monocytes in healthy volunteers. Flow cytometric analysis of the patient in the present study revealed increased CD16 CD14dim monocytes in the peripheral blood. It has been demonstrated that the expression of CD16 and CD14 is regulated by macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and GM-CSF. Hence, serum cytokines were analysed in our patient and the concentration of serum GM-CSF was found to be less than the lower limit of the assay. In addition, serum M-CSF and granulocyte colony stimulating factor levels were only slightly increased above the normal range. These results suggest that the increase in the CD16 CD14dim subpopulation in the circulation of our patient indicates another pathogenetic mechanism for secondary PAP, such as hyperresponsiveness of the monocyte/macrophage lineage to these cytokines.
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ranking = 413116.92101224
keywords = macrophage
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