Cases reported "Pulmonary Atelectasis"

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1/7. intestinal obstruction caused by an ectopic fallopian tube in a child: case report and literature review.

    The authors present the case of a prepubertal 14-year-old girl who was admitted for an acute abdominal pain, fever, and vomiting. She was in a poor general state, having recently suffered a weight loss of 5 kg. A plain abdominal x-ray disclosed signs of mechanical ileus. An abdominal ultrasound scan showed a normal uterus, a normal right-sided ovary, but no left ovary. An emergency laparoscopy found a normal uterus with complete absence of the left ovary and salpinx, the upper left dome of the uterus being smooth with no visible horn. The right ovary and salpinx were normal. intestinal obstruction was caused by a strangulating cordlike structure of unclear origin. After converting to a laparotomy, we found an abnormal fallopian tube inserted in the left parieto-colic groove. The tube extended next on the lateral sigmoid mesentery and wrapped itself around the ileum, provoking a local strangulation and an ischemic covered bowel perforation. The bowel perforation was treated by a segmental bowel resection. Careful dissection of the cordlike structure disclosed a true rudimentary fallopian tube with hypotrophic fimbriae and a small distal round structure containing ovarian tissue. These structures were removed entirely. A review of the literature on this rare situation is presented and discussed.
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2/7. Laparoscopically assisted treatment of acute abdomen in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    The incidence of abdominal pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is very high. Most patients do not require surgical treatment (serositis). Some cases such as appendicitis, perforated ulcer, cholecystitis or, rarely, intestinal infarction are surgical. Differential diagnosis is difficult, partly because noninvasive examinations do not provide enough evidence to rule out a diagnosis. On the other hand, in patients with SLE who have acute abdomen, it is dangerous to delay surgery by attempting conservative therapy. In fact, a better survival rate has been associated with early laparotomy. We report a case of acute abdomen in a patient affected by SLE, in which the diagnostic problem was solved by means of laparoscopy and the treatment was laparoscopically assisted. A 45-year-old woman with a 25-year history of SLE was admitted with abdominal pain and fever. Her physical examination revealed a painful right iliac fossa with rebound tenderness. Her WBC count was normal. Abdominal x-ray, ultrasonography, paracentesis, and peritoneal lavage did not provide a diagnosis. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, showing segmentary small bowel necrosis. The incision of the umbilical port site was enlarged to allow a small laparatomy, and a small bowel resection was performed. The histopathologic finding was "leucocytoclasic vasculitis, with infarction of the intestinal wall." The patient recovered uneventfully. In conclusion, this case report shows that emergency diagnostic laparoscopy is feasible and useful for acute abdomen in SLE. Currently, this diagnostic possibility could be considered the technique of choice in these cases, partly because, when necessary, it also can allow for mini-invasive treatment therapy.
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3/7. diagnosis of perforated gastric ulcers by ultrasound.

    patients with a perforation of the gastrointestinal tract need fast confirmation of diagnosis and early treatment to improve outcome. Plain abdominal x-ray does not always prove the perforation particularly at early stage. We report about a 62 year-old woman complaining of consistent abdominal pain with sudden onset. Ultrasound was taken as first diagnostic measure, revealing a perforation. The leakage was located in the stomach. radiography confirmed the pneumoperitoneum without indicating the perforated location. During operation the perforated gastric ulcer was found and sutured. This case report points out the reliability of ultrasound in diagnosing a pneumoperitoneum. Additionally it provides a summary of ultrasound signs seen in perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers and a review of literature.
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4/7. Giant T-shaped duplication of the transverse colon. A case report.

    A case of long diverticular colonic duplication producing acute abdominal pain in a 6-year-old girl is presented. physical examination showed no signs of acute abdomen at the initial presentation. After a pain-free interval, there was a sudden onset of severe abdominal pain and a large tumor in the lower abdomen was observed. A plain x-ray showed an enormously dilated colonic pouch filled with gas. Excision of the T-shaped duplication and small part of the transverse colon was successful. Because of extensive fibrotic changes in the colon near the opening of duplication, a resection margin of at least 2 cm is recommended.
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5/7. Abdominal catastrophes.

    The patient in our case report presented with an acute abdomen but stable vital signs and ABCs. The differential diagnosis initially included most of the entities discussed in this chapter. The ECG ruled out an acute MI. The patient improved with IV hydration and oxygen administration. Abdominal x-ray films ruled out a bowel obstruction, and chest x-ray films ruled out a pulmonic process. Laboratory tests revealed hemoconcentration and leukocytosis. No other laboratory test results were abnormal. While waiting for the surgeon to arrive, the patient remains stable, so the ED physician orders a CT scan of the abdomen. Taking another look at the plain x-ray films, the emergency physician in our case presentation sees a suggestion of free air under the right hemidiaphragm above the liver on the CXR and between the liver and the right abdominal wall on the decubitus ABD x-ray. The CT scan confirms the presence of free air within the peritoneal cavity, and the patient is taken to surgery for an exploratory laparotomy. The final diagnosis is perforated peptic ulcer. With hindsight, the patient and wife recall a previous diagnosis of a possible ulcer in the past.
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6/7. Rectus sheath hematoma: diagnosis by computed tomography scanning.

    A 65-year-old woman receiving long-term oral anticoagulant therapy was admitted with signs and symptoms suggesting colonic obstruction. A tender, firm left lower-quadrant mass, colonic and small bowel distention, mild leukocytosis, and a markedly elevated prothrombin time were the prominent presenting abnormalities. Emergency colon x-ray study did not demonstrate colonic obstruction, and ultrasound of the abdomen was initially nondiagnostic. Computed tomography scanning revealed a large mass localized in the left rectus sheath and muscle consistent, in this clinical setting, with a spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. The purpose of this report is to suggest the usefulness of computed tomography scanning in the evaluation of indeterminate abdominal masses such as the rectus sheath hematoma. The subject of rectus sheath hematoma is reviewed to emphasize its inclusion in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen and to suggest an earlier, more accurate, and noninvasive approach to its diagnosis.
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7/7. Spontaneous perforation of the colon in a hemodialysis patient.

    Spontaneous perforation of the colon by a barium stereoraceous fecaloma occurred two weeks after an upper gastrointestinal x-ray without intervening constipation or symptoms of intestinal obstruction. This patient is chronically uremic as have been a high percentage of the few previously reported similar cases. Renal failure and the associated factors in the management of uremia such as antacids, barium examinations, inactivity, changes in diet and finally abnormalities of the colonic mucosa due to uremia may all predispose these patients to an increased risk for this unusual serious complication.
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