Cases reported "Pulmonary Embolism"

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1/214. Interventricular septal shift due to massive pulmonary embolism shown by CT pulmonary angiography: an old sign revisited.

    The computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiogram appearances of acute right ventricular dysfunction due to massive pulmonary embolus in a patient are described. Abnormal findings comprised right ventricular dilatation, interventricular septal shift, and compression of the left ventricle. These changes resolved following thrombolysis. Use of CT pulmonary angiography to diagnose pulmonary emboli is increasing. Secondary cardiac effects are established diagnostic features shown by echocardiography. These have not been previously described but are important to recognise as they may carry important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
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2/214. heart transplantation after successful donor postpartum pulmonary embolectomy.

    A fulminant pulmonary embolism can be treated surgically if thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated. A 31-year-old woman developed a fulminant pulmonary embolism after right-sided deep venous thrombosis 1 day after undergoing a cesarean section. A pulmonary embolectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass was performed, but the patient was brain-dead. After 2 days of echocardiographic observation, her heart was explanted for a 61-year-old man with ischemic cardiomyopathy. His right heart data were unremarkable, and he remains well 16 months after transplantation. Despite the sudden strain on the right ventricle that occurs with a pulmonary embolism, such a heart may be transplanted successfully after a pulmonary embolectomy.
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3/214. pulmonary embolism and myocardial hypoxia during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    The treatment of a newborn with severe meconium aspiration by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was complicated by myocardial hypoxia with a marked decrease of myocardial contractility. The onset of the cardiac hypoxia was related to a pulmonary artery embolus. The origin of the embolus was a deep femoral vein thrombosis, caused by a central vein catheter, which was inserted 1 day before ECMO by venous cutdown. The possible pathophysiology of myocardial hypoxia in this patient is discussed, especially with regard to myocardial perfusion, supporting the hypothesis of coronary perfusion occuring with blood from the left ventricle and not from the arterial cannula in the aorta.
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4/214. Complications of treatment: pulmonary embolism following craniotomy for meningioma.

    We present two case reports of patients who suffered a pulmonary embolism (PE) in the week following surgery for removal of a meningioma. Both patients were anticoagulated in the first week following surgery, and as a result, both suffered intracerebral bleeds requiring further surgery. An inferior vena caval (IVC) filter was then used in both patients to prevent further embolic events. Following our experience, we believe that it is dangerous to use intravenous anticoagulation within 6 days of cranial surgery for removal of a meningioma. We have reviewed the literature concerning the present guidelines for thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients requiring neurosurgery and believe that consideration of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin should now be given to all patients requiring craniotomy for removal of a meningioma.
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5/214. A successful case of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with a thrombus in the right ventricle.

    Chronic thromboembolism is a frequent cause of progressive hypertension and carries a poor prognosis. Medical treatment is not effective and surgery provides the only potential for a cure at present. We herein report a successful case of thromboendarterectomy treated via a median sternotomy with intermittent circulatory arrest. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of progressive dyspnea, edema of the lower extremities, and a fever with an unknown origin. A subsequent definitive evaluation showed him to be suffering from surgically accessible chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with a thrombus in the right ventricle. He underwent a pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and thrombectomy via a median sternotomy with intermittent circulatory arrest on November 24, 1994. Postoperatively he showed a marked improvement in his hemodynamic status and blood gas analysis. He has also returned to work with no trouble. Deep vein thrombosis appeared to be the pathogenesis of this case, but we could not find the origin of his unknown fever. He is currently being controlled by treatment with methylprednisolone as before.
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6/214. Fatal pulmonary embolism in a child undergoing extra-ventricular drainage surgery--a case report.

    thromboembolism is rather common in neurological patients and patients with brain tumor, who are bed-ridden or with partial immobile limb. In serious instances morbidity and mortality are inevitable. We present a case report on a fatal pulmonary embolism in a 2-year-old girl who underwent extra-ventricular drainage procedure under general anesthesia for occipital subdural effusion, a sequela of the former surgery undertaken to remove the choroid plexus papilloma 13 days ago. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred during induction of anesthesia and she finally succumbed in spite of vigorous cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography performed in the course of resuscitation disclosed thrombi of various sizes scattering in right atrium, the right ventricle, main pulmonary trunk, and the left pulmonary artery. The cause of death was thought to be severe obstruction of right ventricular outflow tract by large thrombi. The etiological factors which possibly led to the thrombosis were discussed, and the methods of diagnosis and treatment were also explored.
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7/214. Sarcoma of the main pulmonary artery: an unusual etiology for recurrent pulmonary emboli.

    We describe a case of primary pulmonary artery (PA) trunk spindle cell sarcoma in an 86 year old female presenting clinically with debilitating signs of recurrent pulmonary embolism. Further extensive work aroused suspicion for pulmonary artery malignancy. Palliative wide surgical resection, pulmonary artery tumor embolectomy and reconstruction of the proximal pulmonary artery and right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) with bovine pericardial tissue were performed. She survived the procedure with an improved quality of life, but expired due to recurrence at 6 months postoperatively. Albeit uncommon, pulmonary artery sarcoma is nowadays a more frequently preoperatively diagnosed and surgically treated malignancy. With a modern low perioperative mortality, aggressive surgical resection remains as the single most effective modality for its treatment and can result in short term palliation in selected patients.
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8/214. Case report of a patient with an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary trunk presenting as a pulmonary embolism.

    A fatal case of an 89-year-old woman with an intimal sarcoma obstructing the pulmonary trunk and an open foramen ovale is presented. Clinical symptoms, physical examination and further evaluation originally raised suspicion of a pulmonary embolism. Recent classification systems, specific radiological and pathological characteristics of sarcomas of the pulmonary trunk are discussed.
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9/214. pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma.

    pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease, and can be mistaken for pulmonary thromboembolism. We report a case of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma managed with surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. A 57-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of aggravated dyspnea. She was initially treated with oxygen therapy and heparinization for a suspected pulmonary embolism. echocardiography revealed a dilated right atrium and ventricle and severe tricuspid regurgitation, with an estimated systolic right ventricular pressure of 95 mm Hg; a shadow of a mass in the main pulmonary artery was also noted. Right ventriculography revealed a filling defect, and to-and-fro motion of the mass in the main pulmonary artery. The left pulmonary artery was almost totally occluded by the mass. The patient's condition improved dramatically after palliative excision of the mass and patch reconstruction of the outflow tract of the right ventricle with a bicuspid xenograft. Pathologic examination of the mass revealed leiomyosarcoma. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were subsequently administered and follow-up imaging studies 3 months postoperatively revealed no recurrence of the tumor. The patient remains well, more than 1 year after treatment. This report emphasises that pulmonary artery sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of suspected pulmonary thromboembolism.
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10/214. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a congenitally afibrinogenemic patient: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic options.

    BACKGROUND: Coagulation disorders can cause intracerebral bleeding that may be difficult to detect since subsequent aberrant clot formation may mask early detection. This is an important pitfall because, when diagnosed early, bleeding in these patients is treatable. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient with congenital afibrinogenemia presented with recurrent hemiparesis. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage was diagnosed, despite an initial negative CT scan. diagnosis, therapy, and complications of therapy are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebral hemorrhage must be strongly suspected in any patient with a coagulation disorder presenting with matching clinical symptoms. Therapy must be installed immediately, before additional investigations, and should be continued even when initial neuroimaging is negative.
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