Cases reported "Pulmonary Embolism"

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1/109. Ruptured mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm: an unusual complication of right-sided endocarditis.

    Mycotic pulmonary aneurysm is an infrequently diagnosed complication of endocarditis. We report here a case of mycotic pulmonary aneurysm and a review of 25 cases from the literature. The mortality rate is greater than 50%. Prompt diagnosis is necessary because early intrasaccular embolization and/or surgical repair is essential to avoid death from rupture of the aneurysm.
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2/109. Fatal pulmonary embolism in a child undergoing extra-ventricular drainage surgery--a case report.

    thromboembolism is rather common in neurological patients and patients with brain tumor, who are bed-ridden or with partial immobile limb. In serious instances morbidity and mortality are inevitable. We present a case report on a fatal pulmonary embolism in a 2-year-old girl who underwent extra-ventricular drainage procedure under general anesthesia for occipital subdural effusion, a sequela of the former surgery undertaken to remove the choroid plexus papilloma 13 days ago. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred during induction of anesthesia and she finally succumbed in spite of vigorous cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography performed in the course of resuscitation disclosed thrombi of various sizes scattering in right atrium, the right ventricle, main pulmonary trunk, and the left pulmonary artery. The cause of death was thought to be severe obstruction of right ventricular outflow tract by large thrombi. The etiological factors which possibly led to the thrombosis were discussed, and the methods of diagnosis and treatment were also explored.
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3/109. sarcoma of the main pulmonary artery: an unusual etiology for recurrent pulmonary emboli.

    We describe a case of primary pulmonary artery (PA) trunk spindle cell sarcoma in an 86 year old female presenting clinically with debilitating signs of recurrent pulmonary embolism. Further extensive work aroused suspicion for pulmonary artery malignancy. Palliative wide surgical resection, pulmonary artery tumor embolectomy and reconstruction of the proximal pulmonary artery and right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) with bovine pericardial tissue were performed. She survived the procedure with an improved quality of life, but expired due to recurrence at 6 months postoperatively. Albeit uncommon, pulmonary artery sarcoma is nowadays a more frequently preoperatively diagnosed and surgically treated malignancy. With a modern low perioperative mortality, aggressive surgical resection remains as the single most effective modality for its treatment and can result in short term palliation in selected patients.
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4/109. pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic antireflux surgery: a case report and review of the literature.

    Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are concerning causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing general surgical procedures. Laparoscopic surgery has gained rapid acceptance in the past several years and is now a commonly performed procedure by most general surgeons. Multiple anecdotal reports of pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic cholecystectomy have been reported, but the true incidence of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery is not known. We present a case of pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia. The literature is then reviewed regarding the incidence of pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic surgery, the mechanism of deep venous thrombosis formation, and the recommendations for deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures.
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5/109. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in pulmonary embolism.

    Acute massive pulmonary embolism carries a high mortality with the majority of deaths occurring during the early phase. We describe a case of massive pulmonary embolism resulting in severe cardiovascular collapse and cardiac arrest which was treated successfully with inhaled nitric oxide.
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6/109. Effectiveness of an inferior vena caval filter as a preventive measure against pulmonary thromboembolism after abdominal surgery.

    In three patients with a previous history of pulmonary thromboembolism, inferior vena caval filters were inserted before elective laparotomies to prevent a recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism. Two patients had colon cancer and underwent colectomies, while the other had myoma uteri, which might have been the cause of deep vein thrombosis, and thus a hysterectomy was performed. In spite of their poor risks, their postoperative courses were fairly good owing to perioperative management including anticoagulant therapy, and no recurrence has been observed since the operation in every case. A pulmonary thromboembolism is a fatal complication which follows deep vein thromboses. In patients with such a previous history, the risk is much higher after a laparotomy because of long-term bed rest, hypercoagulability, and so on. The mortality rate after a recurrence of pulmonary thromboembolism is reported to reach 30% without adequate therapy, whereas it is reduced to 8% with anticoagulant therapy, and to 0.8% with additional inferior vena caval filter placement. Considering the feasibility of insertion and the low incidence of complications, preoperative inferior vena caval filter placement is thus recommended for patients having a previous history of either pulmonary thromboembolism or deep vein thrombosis.
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7/109. False positive perfusion lung scintiscans in tetraplegic patients: a case series.

    An accurate diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is essential to prevent excessive morbidity and mortality from either inappropriate therapy or failure to institute anticoagulation. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in tetraplegic spinal cord injury patients is complicated by frequent inability to perform the ventilation portion of the ventilation-perfusion scintiscan (V/Q scan) and by controversy regarding classification of defects on perfusion-only scans, as well as by coexisting pulmonary disease, systemic illness, related injuries, and the tendency for tetraplegic patients to have unexplained fever. This report describes three tetraplegic ventilator-dependent patients with hypoxic respiratory failure and normal chest radiographs who had large defects on perfusion-only lung scans. ventilation scintiscans were not performed because the patients were ventilator-dependent with tracheostomies. Pulmonary angiography findings were normal in all patients, and all three responded to aggressive pulmonary toilet. Even large defects on perfusion-only scans despite normal chest radiographs should not be used to establish a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in tetraplegic patients, and further diagnostic imaging is warranted.
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8/109. ED echocardiography for peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Although peripartum cardiomyopathy is uncommon, emergency physicians should be knowledgeable of it because of its high morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians should be alert to the fact that the clinical presentation of peripartum cardiomyopathy is nonspecific. Its clinical manifestations are found in other medical conditions that can present in the late prepartum or postpartum patient. We present a case of peripartum cardiomyopathy that illustrates how its nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. The case also highlights the need for echocardiography in the evaluation of peripartum cardiomyopathy. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy.
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9/109. hepatopulmonary syndrome and venous emboli causing intracerebral hemorrhages after liver transplantation: a case report.

    Increasing experience has fostered the acceptance of liver transplantation as a treatment for patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome. morbidity and mortality is most commonly attributed to progressive arterial hypoxemia postoperatively. A cerebral hemorrhage has been reported in one patient with hepatopulmonary syndrome after transplantation. However, a postmortem examination of the brain was not performed and the pathogenesis or type of cerebral hemorrhage was undefined. We report on a patient with severe hepatopulmonary syndrome who developed multiple intracranial hemorrhages after transplantation. The intracerebral hemorrhages were most consistent with an embolic etiology on postmortem examination. We postulate that venous embolization, caused by the manipulation of a Swan Ganz catheter in a thrombosed central vein, resulted in pulmonary emboli that passed through dilated intrapulmonary vessels into the cerebral microcirculation. Special attention to central venous catheters and avoidance of manipulation may be warranted in subjects with severe hepatopulmonary syndrome after liver transplantation.
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10/109. Mechanical circulatory assist for pulmonary embolism.

    Optimal management of acute pulmonary embolism remains controversial, despite advances in thrombolytic therapy. Haemodynamic instability and, in particular, right ventricular dysfunction is associated with poor outcomes. Urgent surgical embolectomy has been the treatment of choice in this category of patients. We present two cases in which percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) was used as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy for progressive circulatory collapse secondary to massive acute pulmonary embolism. This experience suggests that PCPS may offer an attractive option for a condition which continues to carry significant morbidity and mortality.
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