Cases reported "Pulmonary Embolism"

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1/258. Pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism under percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.

    Portable percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) with heparin-coated circuits and a biopump was employed in a patient who had a massive pulmonary embolism with circulatory collapse after stripping of varicosities of the leg. Emergency pulmonary embolectomy was successfully performed. The main pulmonary incision was facilitated by cross-clamping of the main pulmonary arterial root. The bypass circuit was kept closed, and used with the normothermic beating heart without converting to conventional total cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood flow from the lung was removed by pump suction, stored in the reservoir, and intermittently returned to the venous circulation. heparin was added to the circuits to keep the activated clotting time greater than 300 sec. In massive pulmonary embolism, PCPS is useful for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative support.
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2/258. Postoperative acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis with special reference to apheresis therapy.

    Eight patients with pancreatic abscesses secondary to acute necrotizing pancreatitis underwent drainage of their abscesses under laparotomy. Two of them died of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) within 1 week. autopsy revealed a large thrombus at the main trunk of the pulmonary artery and in the left common iliac vein. Femoral catheter insertion/indwelling, immobilization, surgery, increased trypsin/kinin/kallikrein, increased endotoxin, and decreased antithrombin-III (AT-III) were present following drainage of the pancreatic abscesses. With respect to the bedside diagnosis of acute PTE, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradients obtained by blood gas analysis and mean pulmonary artery pressure estimated by pulsed Doppler echocardiography are very useful. In terms of the treatment, attention should be paid to the following to prevent deep venous thrombosis: prophylactic administration of low molecular weight heparin and administration of AT-III (AT-III > or = 80%), use of the subclavian vein whenever possible as blood access for apheresis therapy, as short a compression time as possible after removing the blood access catheter (< or =6 h), and application of intermittent pneumatic compression devices or elastic compression stockings on the lower extremities.
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3/258. A successful case of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with a thrombus in the right ventricle.

    Chronic thromboembolism is a frequent cause of progressive hypertension and carries a poor prognosis. Medical treatment is not effective and surgery provides the only potential for a cure at present. We herein report a successful case of thromboendarterectomy treated via a median sternotomy with intermittent circulatory arrest. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of progressive dyspnea, edema of the lower extremities, and a fever with an unknown origin. A subsequent definitive evaluation showed him to be suffering from surgically accessible chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with a thrombus in the right ventricle. He underwent a pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and thrombectomy via a median sternotomy with intermittent circulatory arrest on November 24, 1994. Postoperatively he showed a marked improvement in his hemodynamic status and blood gas analysis. He has also returned to work with no trouble. Deep vein thrombosis appeared to be the pathogenesis of this case, but we could not find the origin of his unknown fever. He is currently being controlled by treatment with methylprednisolone as before.
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4/258. Intraoperative detection of pulmonary thromboemboli with epicardial echocardiography.

    We report a novel intraoperative use of epicardial echocardiography in detecting and guiding the removal of pulmonary arterial thromboemboli. We describe a patient with a right atrial thrombus that could not be visualized with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Because we suspected acute pulmonary embolization, epicardial echocardiography was used to visualize the right and left pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary thromboemboli were identified, and pulmonary thromboembolectomy was successfully performed.
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5/258. Successful thrombolysis for massive pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resection.

    We report the successful use of thrombolysis for acute massive pulmonary embolism 2 days after right lower lobectomy for bronchial adenocarcinoma. Pulmonary angiography revealed extensive clot unsuitable for surgical embolectomy. A bolus infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator produced an immediate improvement in the patient's hemodynamic state. There was substantial blood loss requiring the transfusion of 21 units of blood over the postoperative period. The patient made a successful recovery and remained well at 1 year.
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6/258. Fatal pulmonary embolism after atrial septal defect closure in a paediatric patient.

    A four-year-old girl died of massive acute bilateral pulmonary embolism 11 days after direct closure of a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II), despite postoperative anticoagulation until the patient was ambulatory. An autopsy showed thrombotic deposits on the suture line of the ASD closure, bilateral 90% occlusion of the pulmonary arteries, and haemorrhagic ulcerative ischaemic colitis of the descending colon and the sigmoid.
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7/258. sarcoma of the main pulmonary artery: an unusual etiology for recurrent pulmonary emboli.

    We describe a case of primary pulmonary artery (PA) trunk spindle cell sarcoma in an 86 year old female presenting clinically with debilitating signs of recurrent pulmonary embolism. Further extensive work aroused suspicion for pulmonary artery malignancy. Palliative wide surgical resection, pulmonary artery tumor embolectomy and reconstruction of the proximal pulmonary artery and right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) with bovine pericardial tissue were performed. She survived the procedure with an improved quality of life, but expired due to recurrence at 6 months postoperatively. Albeit uncommon, pulmonary artery sarcoma is nowadays a more frequently preoperatively diagnosed and surgically treated malignancy. With a modern low perioperative mortality, aggressive surgical resection remains as the single most effective modality for its treatment and can result in short term palliation in selected patients.
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8/258. Correlation of pseudohypoxemia and leukocytosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Pseudohypoxemia has been reported in leukemic patients with extreme leukocytosis, and it is characterized by a low oxygen saturation on arterial blood gas analysis despite normal saturation on pulse oximetry. We report the case of a 51-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count after splenectomy, his progressive postoperative pseudohypoxemia gradually improved as the leukocytosis was lowered by chemotherapy. We believe this is the first report to show a statistically significant correlation between the WBC count and the degree of pseudohypoxemia in a patient with leukemia.
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9/258. Adnexal torsion and pulmonary embolism: case report and review of the literature.

    The classical teaching was that twisted adnexa should be resected and not untwisted, so as not to increase the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE). A patient recently was seen who developed PE after adnexal resection. Because this complication followed the conventional management of salpingo-oophorectomy, the literature was examined for cases of adnexal torsion and PE to see if the operative management (untwisting vs. excision without untwisting) could be implicated as a contributing factor. Three hundred nine cases of adnexal torsion managed by untwisting and 672 cases treated by adnexectomy without detorsion (untwisting) were found. The incidence of PE after adnexal torsion was 0.2 percent, and this incidence was not increased when the adnexa were untwisted. Therefore, we conclude that detorsion of twisted adnexa does not increase the risk of PE, compared with excision without untwisting. PE does occur in cases in which adnexal resection is performed without untwisting. Thus, detorsion of twisted adnexa should be considered at laparoscopy or laparotomy without fear of increasing the incidence of PE.
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10/258. Effectiveness of an inferior vena caval filter as a preventive measure against pulmonary thromboembolism after abdominal surgery.

    In three patients with a previous history of pulmonary thromboembolism, inferior vena caval filters were inserted before elective laparotomies to prevent a recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism. Two patients had colon cancer and underwent colectomies, while the other had myoma uteri, which might have been the cause of deep vein thrombosis, and thus a hysterectomy was performed. In spite of their poor risks, their postoperative courses were fairly good owing to perioperative management including anticoagulant therapy, and no recurrence has been observed since the operation in every case. A pulmonary thromboembolism is a fatal complication which follows deep vein thromboses. In patients with such a previous history, the risk is much higher after a laparotomy because of long-term bed rest, hypercoagulability, and so on. The mortality rate after a recurrence of pulmonary thromboembolism is reported to reach 30% without adequate therapy, whereas it is reduced to 8% with anticoagulant therapy, and to 0.8% with additional inferior vena caval filter placement. Considering the feasibility of insertion and the low incidence of complications, preoperative inferior vena caval filter placement is thus recommended for patients having a previous history of either pulmonary thromboembolism or deep vein thrombosis.
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