Cases reported "Pulmonary Emphysema"

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1/57. Ruptured hemidiaphragm after bilateral lung transplantation.

    A case of right hemidiaphragm rupture and abdominal herniation into the thorax occurring during the immediate post-operative course of double-lung transplantation is reported. This complication has not been reported previously. We examine the possible aetiology and suggest that the direct cause could be an increase in intra-abdominal pressure during chest physiotherapy.
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2/57. A case of thoracoscopic bilateral lung volume reduction surgery in a supine position.

    We present a case of thoracoscopic bilateral lung volume reduction surgery performed with the patient in a supine position. By rotating the operative table, bilateral apical resection could be performed without difficulty. The duration of the operation was 160 minutes and the patient's forced expiratory volume in 1 second improved from 0.81 l to 2.49 l.
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3/57. Successful surgical treatment of impending rupture of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in an elderly patient with severe pulmonary emphysema.

    In a case of successful surgery for impending thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysmic rupture, an 83-year-old man with severe pulmonary emphysema was transferred to our hospital diagnosed with impending aneurysmic rupture. The aneurysm had been pointed out 2.5 years ago but surgical repair was not undertaken due to the patient's severe pulmonary emphysema. After admission, computed tomography showed an enlarging saccular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Emergency surgery was conducted because of severe pain below the left costal margin. We resected the wall of the saccular aortic aneurysm and reconstructed the aorta with an on-lay patch under femoro-femoral bypass and selective visceral organ perfusion. tracheostomy provided respiratory care on the day following surgery. The patient was weaned from respiratory support 6 days after surgery. Postoperative aortography showed that the reconstructed thoracoabdominal aorta functioned satisfactorily. The patient remains in good health 18 months after surgery.
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4/57. Improved ventilatory function after combined operation for pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer.

    BACKGROUND: smoking is the leading cause of both lung cancer and emphysema. Therefore, some patients with stage I and II disease will present with contra-indications to resection including a predicted postoperative FEV1 of less than 0.81 or a VO2max of less than 10 ml/kg/min. Recently, lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has re-emerged in the management of emphysema with excellent results. methods AND patients: 2 patients are reported with lung cancer in the left lower lobe and emphysematous destruction in both upper lobes. They, respectively, had a predicted postoperative FEV1 of 0.9211 and 0.6851. No metastases were present. Pre-operatively, a COPD index of 0.9 and 0.7 was calculated. A left lower lobectomy together with volume reduction of the left upper lobe was performed through a standard posterolateral thoracotomy. RESULTS: Pathological examination showed, respectively, stage IIb and stage Ib disease. The postoperative course was uneventful and 3 months later a FEV1 of 1.441 for patient 1 and 1.041 for patient 2 were recorded. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that pulmonary function criteria for pulmonary resection have to be revised when patients can undergo simultaneous lung cancer resection and LVRS. The pre-operatively calculated COPD index can be used to predict which patients may not have a decrease in ventilatory function.
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5/57. Redo lung volume reduction surgery in a patient with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Lung volume reduction surgery is a palliative procedure that improves dyspnea and pulmonary function in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Postoperative benefit is sustained for an individual period and depends on the emphysema morphology, the surgical technique, and other not yet well-defined factors. The question whether lung volume reduction surgery can be performed a second time on the same thoracic cavity is often raised but experience in this regard is lacking. We describe a patient who has undergone a successful redo operation 2 years after the initial lung volume reduction surgery.
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6/57. Successful percutaneous endovascular treatment of a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm.

    A rupture of the popliteal artery is a rare but dangerous complication of aneurysmal disease. It accounts for 4% of all popliteal artery aneurysms encountered and threatens the loss of the extremity and, infrequently, is also life-threatening.(1) when this clinical entity is confronted, a prompt operative intervention is indispensable for increasing the chances of limb salvage. We report the first, to our knowledge, successful endovascular treatment of a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm with a new polytetrafluoroethylene stent-graft in a patient who was unfit for a conventional surgical approach because of his severe pulmonary disease.
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7/57. Anaesthetic management of a 6-week-old child with unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema.

    We report the case of a 6-week-old female infant suffering from respiratory distress related to cystic changes affecting the entire left lung. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane in oxygen and spontaneous ventilation was maintained until intubation of the right main bronchus was secured. A left pneumonectomy was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful. The pathological diagnosis was pulmonary interstitial emphysema. This has not been previously reported in an otherwise normal child delivered uneventfully at term. The anaesthetic management of a child with a cystic lung lesion is discussed.
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8/57. Congenital lobar emphysema occurring in twins.

    twins born with congenital lobar emphysema are reported. This has not previously been described. diagnosis, surgical management and subsequent course is high-lighted. These twins may well be the smallest to have operative treatment.
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9/57. Surgical intervention for emphysematous pulmonary regions in a postoperative infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    A postoperative infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) developed extrinsic obstruction of the trachea by the innominate artery that ensued from unequal expansion of the lungs followed by left mediastinal shift. Septation of the anterior mediastinum prevented unequal expansion of the lungs, and elongation of the innominate artery improved proximal airway obstruction. Prolonged artificial ventilation, however, resulted in the emphysematous bullae in the left lung. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), at 3 years of age, ameliorated the respiratory distress and resulted in good weight gain. Surgical intervention, including LVRS, should be considered to improve respiratory disturbance caused by difference in compliance of the lungs in children.
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10/57. Bronchial carcinoid tumor presenting with complete lobar collapse and unilateral lung emphysema.

    Bronchial carcinoid tumors have different radiographic manifestations. This is a presentation of a case of bronchial carcinoid tumor which presented with complete right upper lobe collapse and emphysematous change of the right residual lung. According to bronchoscopic and operative findings, the emphysematous change of the right residual lung was contributed by a check-valve effect of the endobronchial tumor of the right main bronchus and a compensatory effect of the right residual lung post complete collapse of the right upper lobe.
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