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1/11. Subaortic obstruction after the use of an intracardiac baffle to tunnel the left ventricle to the aorta.

    Postoperative hemodynamic studies in five patients document subaortic obstruction after surgical repair utilizing an intracardiac baffle to establish continuity between the left ventricle and the aorta. Four of the patients had a Rastelli procedure for D-transposition of the great arteries with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis; one patient had repair of double outlet right ventricle with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. The left ventricular outflow was shown to be a long narrow tunnel by angiography in four of five patients and by echocardiography in one patient. Resting aortic peak systolic pressure gradient ranged from 10 to 42 mm Hg (mean 24). The obstruction was localized to the proximal end of the left ventricule to aorta tunnel (i.e., at the site of ventricular septal defect) in five patients. One patient with a gradient of 42 mm Hg has angina and decreased exercise tolerance. Subaortic obstruction is a newly described sequelae after the Rastelli procedure for transposition or repair of double outlet right ventricle. The obstruction may be hemodynamically significant and should be searched for at postoperative cardiac catheterization.
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2/11. Acute effects of DDD pacing in patients with pulmonary infundibular stenosis.

    We evaluated acute effects of DDD pacing (right atrium sensed and left ventricle paced) in 3 patients with pulmonary infundibular stenosis and found a decrease in dynamic right ventricular outflow gradient in all of them. It appears that acute temporary DDD pacing may decrease the dynamic obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract in these patients, probably because of asynchronous contraction of the right ventricle induced by pacing from the left ventricular apex, with contraction of infundibular portion being delayed.
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keywords = ventricle
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3/11. Pacing lead adhesions after long-term ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus.

    Left ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus is being increasingly used. There is little data to guide possible lead extractions that might be required in the future. Significant adhesions to the coronary veins were found 12 years after placing a pacing lead in the posterolateral coronary vein in a man with double inlet left ventricle and severe subpulmonary stenosis who had undergone a Fontan operation. The appearances suggest that percutaneous extraction from the proximal coronary sinus may be feasible but that difficulty may be encountered if the lead tip is placed into the distal coronary veins.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = ventricle
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4/11. Surgical correction of unusual double-outlet right ventricle.

    This paper presents the case history of an 8-year-old girl who had total situs inversus and double-outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis and severe tricuspid insufficiency in the presence of dextrocardia with ventricular discordance. A successful repair was performed using the Rastelli technique in conjunction with replacement of the tricuspid valve with a Bjork-Shiley prosthesis. The postoperative course was uneventful, and follow-up catheterization revealed a good operative result. However, the patient died suddenly during an emotionally upsetting period about two months after the operation. Postmortem examination revealed only signs of moderately severe cardiac decompensation. Some anatomical and embryological comments are made.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = ventricle
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5/11. Primitive ventricle with acquired subpulmonary stenosis.

    The course and natural history of two children aged 1 yr and 5 yr with primitive ventricle with outlet chamber and normally related great arteries are described. They initially presented as ventricular septal defect with increased pulmonary blood flow and subsequently developed 'cyanotic attacks', chronic cyanosis and diminished pulmonary flow by acquiring subpulmonary obstruction of the bulboventricular foramen. Both had successful surgical treatment utilizing their own normal pulmonary valves by connecting the right atrium to the right ventricular outflow, with a Dacron conduit in one, and in the other by detaching the pulmonary artery and valve from the rudimentary outflow chamber and anastomosing it directly to the right atrial appendage. Changing morphology and its effect on function are discussed.
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ranking = 0.72535667716824
keywords = ventricle, foramen
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6/11. situs inversus totalis associated with subaortic and subpulmonic stenosis.

    The unusual occurrence of total situs inversus and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis with the demonstration of right and left heart dynamic obstruction in one patient is presented. The fact that the patient was known to have a rare abnormality (total situs inversus) and the presenting symptom being angina pectoris, may have obscured the diagnosis of IHSS and emphasized the value of comprehensive evaluation of patients. The documentation of right ventricular dynamic obstruction, in addition to obstruction of the left side of the heart, was facilitated by the use of simultaneous pressure recordings in the pulmonary artery and in the body of the right ventricle. The angina-like pain was secondary to left ventricular outflow obstruction, rather than to coronary disease.
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7/11. Surgical management of infants with isolated supravalvular pulmonary stenosis: case reports.

    Pulmonary stenosis (PS) can be seen from the right ventricular outflow tract to the peripheral pulmonary arteries. Most frequently, the obstruction occurs at the level of the pulmonary valve; however, it occurs less frequently at the infindibular level within the trabecular component of the right ventricle or within the pulmonary arterial pathways. Lesions at any of these levels can occur as part of more congenital cardiac malformations such as tetralogy of fallot, complete transposition of great arteries, or atrial septal defect. Isolated supravalvular pulmonary stenosis (iSPS) is less common than other types of PS. In this study, we present our experience with 4 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass operation for iSPS. In one patient, the circular stenotic area was noted on the touch point of the pulmonary valve. Right ventricular pressures ranged from 70 to 90 mmHg, and the pulmonary artery mean pressures ranged from 14 to 17 mmHg. In all patients, the left ventricular and aortic systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures were moderately increased. pulmonary artery stenosis was treated successfully using a pericardial or Dacron patch on cardiopulmonary bypass. Various techniques such as balloon dilation have been proposed to deal with this problem, but these may often be unsuccessful because of the elasticity and recoil of the pulmonary artery constrictive ring. Even though endovascular stenting and/or balloon angioplasty have been recently proposed as an initial treatment strategy, they may be associated with some severe complications including pulmonary artery thrombosis or stent migration. Our study, even though it consists of a limited number of cases, suggests that open heart surgery using an oval-shaped patch may be a used as the other main choice for the treatment of iSPS.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = ventricle
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8/11. An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to atherosclerotic coronary heart disease associated with simple right ventricular outflow tract stenosis.

    A case of a 35-year-old male who died suddenly after a blow on the chest by his opponent during a quarrel. From both the clinical and autoptical examinations there was no evidence of trauma found anywhere, even in the chest. The heart was the only one of all the internal organs whereon significant pathologic changes were observed during autopsy. It's lesions were as follows: (I) The right ventricle was greatly enlarged simply due to the simple right ventricular outflow tract stenosis (SRVOTS); the heart weight was 587 g. (II) All the main trunks of coronary arteries were involved by atherosclerosis. In addition, the appearance of the lumen at the proximal end of the left anterior descending artery narrowed by an atheromatous plaque (grade II) was completely occluded by a newly formed thrombus. The authors believed that both the coronary atherosclerotic changes and the enlarged heart due to the SRVOTS played a role in the pathogenesis of death (Kelberlus, H.E. and Wellens, H.J.J., Sudden death, Developments in Cardiovascular medicine, Vol. 4, Martinys Nijhoff Publishers, london, 1980, pp. 34-48; Jinming, Qin, A study of cardiac sudden death (51 cases) on the clinical pathologic view, Tianjin Med., 8 (1980) 458-461). The quarrel and blow were the disposing factor.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = ventricle
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9/11. heart transplantation in repaired transposition of the great arteries.

    Cardiac transplantation was carried out in a 40-year-old man with the diagnosis of repaired transposition of the great arteries and right-sided aortic arch who had end-stage cardiac failure due to myopathy of the ventricles. Because of several previous surgical repairs and the orientation of the great vessels, the operation presented some technical problems. Therefore, modifications of operative procedures were used, including recipient hypothermia, circulatory arrest, and changes in the donor heart implantation. The removal of the donor heart was modified in such a way that the graft included the aortic arch and both pulmonary arteries. With the extra length of ascending aorta and transverse arch, the innominate, left carotid, and left subclavian vessels were excised as a button, thereby leaving the distal orifice of the aorta in the superior portion of the transverse arch. For the recipient, the operation was performed using hypothermic total circulatory arrest to dissect free the huge pulmonary artery and the short right-sided aortic arch to place the clamp. Implantation of the donor heart was modified accordingly. The technical results were confirmed one and a half months later on a control digital angiogram. Thirty-five days postoperatively the patient was discharged. Six months after operation, the patient is doing better than ever before in his life. Our findings suggest that a complicated conotruncal development does not preclude cardiac transplantation.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = ventricle
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10/11. Accessory valve cusp as a cause of outflow tract obstruction in atrio-ventricular and ventriculo-arterial discordance.

    Congenital corrected transposition of the great arteries in which there is both an atrio-ventricular and a ventriculo-arterial discordance has surgical significance only in consequence of the associated cardiac anomalies. Their surgical correction is subject to multifarious problems. An exceedingly rare cause of a left-ventricular outflow tract obstruction erroneously interpreted preoperatively in an eight-year-old boy is reported. In an l-transposition with inversion of both ventricles, the diagnosis "valvular pulmonary stenosis" was made preoperatively. However, a normally arranged tricuspid pulmonary valve without stenosis was revealed intraoperatively. On the other hand, dystopic valvular tissue in the form of a monocuspid atrioventricular valve which was attached to an accessory papillary muscle with several tiny tendons was found below the pulmonary valve in the morphological left ventricle. The accessory valve cusp, which was the cause of the hemodynamically relevant subvalvular pulmonary stenosis, had no connection with the mitral valve. The abnormal valve cusp was resected without injuring the normal structures. The angiographic follow-up after one year no longer revealed any pressure gradient. This case report points out the possibility of an outflow tract obstruction caused by a complete accesory valve cusp.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = ventricle
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