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1/69. Xanthine stone in the urinary bladder of a male child.

    urinary tract calculi composed primarily of xanthine are rate both in adults and children. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a 3.5-year-old boy with hereditary xanthinuria (an autosomal recessive disorder of purine metabolism) and primary bladder calculus formed from xanthine. To our knowledge this case demonstrates a previously undescribed form of xanthinuria in childhood. Xanthine stones, although rare, should be considered in the diagnosis of urolithiasis. ( info)

2/69. Identification of a new point mutation in the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for a case of classical type I xanthinuria.

    A 60-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having hypouricemia at an annual health check-up. The routine laboratory data was not remarkable except that the patient's hypouricemia and plasma levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine were much higher than those of normal subjects. Furthermore, the patient's daily urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine was markedly increased compared with reference values. The xanthine dehyrogenase activity of the duodenal mucosa was below the limits of detection. Nevertheless, allopurinol was metabolized to oxypurinol in vivo. Based on these findings, a subtype of classical xanthinuria (type I) was diagnosed. The xanthine dehyrogenase protein was detected by Western blotting analysis. Sequencing of the cDNA of the xanthine dehyrogenase obtained from the duodenal mucosa revealed that a point mutation of C to T had occurred in nucleotide 445. This changed codon 149 from CGC (Arg) to TGC (Cys), a finding that has not been previously reported in patients with classical xanthinuria type I. ( info)

3/69. Persistent developmental delay despite successful bone marrow transplantation for purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency.

    A 10-month-old girl with a history of recurrent candidiasis, developmental delay, and a fulminant varicella infection is described. The diagnosis of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency was suggested by a reduced level of serum uric acid and confirmed by measurement of PNP activity. A human leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow transplantation resulted in immune reconstitution, but poor neurodevelopmental progression. ( info)

4/69. diagnosis of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency in a neonate with thymine-uraciluria.

    dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency is an inborn error of pyrimidine metabolism characterised by thymine-uraciluria, convulsive disorders and developmental delay in paediatric patients, and an increased risk of toxicity from 5-fluorouracil treatment. This report is of the first patient with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed in hong kong. The patient was a 2-day-old male neonate of Pakistani origin who presented with convulsions. diagnosis was made by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection of thymine-uraciluria and by molecular detection of a G to A point mutation in a 5'-splicing site leading to skipping of exon 14 in the DPYD gene of chromosome location 1q22. The results showed that the patient and his mother were homozygous and the father heterozygous for the splice site mutation. The mother also had thymine-uraciluria but was clinically asymptomatic. ( info)

5/69. A family with red cell pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency.

    Congenital hemolytic anemia associated with pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency is reported in two siblings. Both have had moderate chronic hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, and jaundice since early infancy. The peripheral blood smear is characterized by striking red cell basophilic stippling. As this feature has been found in all previously reported cases, it should be the clue to the diagnosis. ( info)

6/69. dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and acute neurological presentation.

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency has been linked to 5-fluorouracil toxicity, but patients may present a wide clinical spectrum. We describe a 1-year-old Tunisian girl with a dramatic onset of neurological symptoms suggesting the possible triggering role of environmental factors. ( info)

7/69. Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency and severe 5-fluorouracil toxicity.

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) is the second enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU), and it has been suggested that patients with a deficiency of this enzyme are at risk from developing severe 5FU-associated toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that in one patient the severe toxicity, after a treatment with 5FU, was attributable to a partial deficiency of DHP. Analysis of the DHP gene showed that the patient was heterozygous for the missense mutation 833G>A (G278D) in exon 5. Heterologous expression of the mutant enzyme in escherichia coli showed that the G278D mutation leads to a mutant DHP enzyme without residual activity. An analysis for the presence of this mutation in 96 unrelated Dutch Caucasians indicates that the allele frequency in the normal population is <0.5%. Our results show that a partial DHP deficiency is a novel pharmacogenetic disorder associated with severe 5FU toxicity. ( info)

8/69. Identification of a new point mutation in the human molybdenum cofactor sulferase gene that is responsible for xanthinuria type II.

    A 43-year-old xanthinuric female was referred to our department because of hypouricemia. Routine laboratory data showed hypouricemia, a high level of plasma oxypurines, decreased urinary uric acid excretion, and increased urinary oxypurine excretion, with xanthine dehydrogenase activity in the duodenal mucosa below the limits of detection. In addition, allopurinol was not metabolized. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed with xanthinuria type II. To investigate the properties of xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) deficiency, a cDNA sequence encoding XDH/XO, aldehyde oxidase (AO), and molybdenum cofactor sulferase (MCS), as well as immunoblotting analysis for XDH/XO protein, obtained from duodenal mucosa samples were performed. The XDH/XO cDNA and AO cDNA sequences of the xanthinuric patient were consistent with previously reported ones, whereas the MCS cDNA sequence revealed a point mutation of G to C in nucleotide 466, which changed codon 156 from GCC (Ala) to CCC (Pro). In addition, the MCS genomic dna sequence including the site of the mutation revealed the same, suggesting that the xanthinuric patient was homozygous for this mutation. Such findings have not been previously reported for patients with xanthinuria type II. ( info)

9/69. beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency: an inborn error of pyrimidine degradation associated with neurological abnormalities.

    beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency is an inborn error of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, affecting the cleavage of N-carbamyl-beta-alanine and N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid. In this study, we report the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying a beta-ureidopropionase deficiency in four patients presenting with neurological abnormalities and strongly elevated levels of N-carbamyl-beta-alanine and N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. No beta-ureidopropionase activity could be detected in a liver biopsy obtained from one of the patients, which reflected the complete absence of the beta-ureidopropionase protein. Analysis of the beta-ureidopropionase gene (UPB1) of these patients revealed the presence of two splice-site mutations (IVS1-2A>G and IVS8-1G>A) and one missense mutation (A85E). Heterologous expression of the mutant enzyme in escherichia coli showed that the A85E mutation resulted in a mutant beta-ureidopropionase enzyme without residual activity. Our results demonstrate that the N-carbamyl-beta-amino aciduria in these patients is due to a deficiency of beta-ureidopropionase, which is caused by mutations in the UPB1 gene. Furthermore, an altered homeostasis of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and/or increased oxidative stress might contribute to some of the clinical abnormalities encountered in patients with a beta-ureidopropionase deficiency. An analysis of the presence of the two splice site mutations and the missense mutation in 95 controls identified one individual who proved to be heterozygous for the IVS8-1G>A mutation. Thus, a beta-ureidopropionase deficiency might not be as rare as is generally considered. ( info)

10/69. adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--first British case.

    A deficiency of adenylosuccinate lyase (ASDL) is characterised by the accumulation of SAICAriboside (SAICAr) and succinyladenosine (S-Ado) in body fluids. The severity of the clinical presentation correlates with a low S-Ado/SAICAr ratio in body fluids. We report the first British case of ADSL deficiency. The patient presented at 14 days with a progressive neonatal encephalopathy and seizures. There was marked axial and peripheral hypotonia. brain MRI showed widespread white matter changes. She died at 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of SAICAr and SAdo were markedly elevated in urine, plasma and CSF and the SAdo/SAICAr ratio was low, consistent with the severe phenotype. The patient was compound heterozygous for 2 novel ADSL mutations; c.9 G>C (A3P) and c.572 C>T (R190X). ( info)
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