Cases reported "Purpura"

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1/19. Large annular purpura and paraneoplastic purpura in a patient with sjogren's syndrome and cervical cancer.

    We report a 79-year-old female with anaphylactoid purpura on her legs and unusual large annular purpura on the trunk. Histopathological characteristics of leukocytoclastic vasculitis were observed in the upper and middle dermis of both types of skin lesions. She was complicated by sjogren's syndrome and advanced cervical cancer. The annular purpura spontaneously resolved in a week and did not recur. However, the anaphylactoid purpura relapsed more frequently and spread more widely following the elevation of her serum SCC antigen levels from the onset of purpura until her death. We consider that the characteristic annular configuration was caused by the complication of sjogren's syndrome and that the recurrent anaphylactoid purpura indicated paraneoplastic vasculitis primarily caused by the tumor specific protein immune complexes. Complication by Sjogren's syndrome many also play a role in the development of allergic vasculitis.
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keywords = death
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2/19. Petechiae of the baby's skin as differentiation symptom of infanticide versus SIDS.

    The successive killing of three siblings by their biological mother at two-year intervals is described. The children were 367 days, 75 days and 3 years old. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or interstitial pneumonia could not be ruled out as the cause of death in the two younger children, who were killed first, the third child exhibited discrete signs of violence in the mouth and throat area which were interpreted as proof of infanticide. All three children had petechiae of the skin of the face and throat, the upper thorax, the shoulders and the mucous membranes of the mouth. None of the children exhibited signs of a disease-related hemorrhagic tendency. After the mother was convicted of murdering the three-year-old boy by smothering in combination with compression of the thorax, she confessed to having killed the other two children in a similar manner. In the absence of hemostatic disease, the presence of petechiae of the skin extending over the entire drainage area of the Vena cava superior can be regarded as evidence of an increase in pressure in the thoracic cavity secondary to obstruction of the airways with simultaneous chest compression.
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ranking = 2
keywords = death
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3/19. Environmental hyperthermic infant and early childhood death: circumstances, pathologic changes, and manner of death.

    Infant and early childhood death caused by environmental hyperthermia (fatal heat stroke) is a rare event, typically occurring in vehicles or beds. The aims of this study were to describe the demographics, circumstances, pathology, and manner of death in infants and young children who died of environmental hyperthermia and to compare these cases with those reported in the literature. Scene investigation, autopsy reports, and the microscopic slides of cases from three jurisdictions were reviewed. The subjects in 10 identified cases ranged in age from 53 days to 9 years. Eight were discovered in vehicles and 2 in beds. When the authors' cases were grouped with reported cases, the profile of those in vehicles differed from those in beds. The former were older, were exposed to rapidly reached higher temperatures, and often had more severe skin damage. The latter were mostly infants and were exposed to lower environmental temperatures. Hepatocellular necrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation were reported in victims who survived at least 6 hours after the hyperthermic exposure. The consistent postmortem finding among nearly all victims was intrathoracic petechiae, suggesting terminal gasping in an attempt at autoresuscitation before death. The manner of death was either accident or homicide. Recommendations for the scene investigation are made.
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ranking = 12
keywords = death
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4/19. Smothering of children older than 1 year of age-diagnostic significance of morphological findings.

    A homicide by smothering may leave unobtrusive or even no injuries if the victim is not able to struggle. This is especially true for infants up to 12 months of age. The differentiation between the sudden infant death syndrome and smothering, by an autopsy alone may be impossible. To establish whether this is different in older children because of their rising capacity for defence six cases of smothering in children >1 year of age were re-examined. The age of the children ranged between 1.5 and 7 years (surviving child). The smothering was inflicted with hands in three cases (including the surviving child), with a pillow in two cases, and the way of smothering remained unknown in one case (no confession of the perpetrator). Depending on the tool used for smothering, abrasions on the facial skin (hands, lesser in cases of smothering by a pillow) and petechiae (pillow/hands) could be seen by external examination. The older the children were, the more injuries could be found. Together with circumstantial evidence all cases could have been established by a thorough autopsy. This is important to prevent further offences against (surviving) siblings.
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keywords = death
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5/19. The role of methionine in ethylmalonic encephalopathy with petechiae.

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with ethylmalonic aciduria, a subgroup with encephalopathy, petechial skin lesions, and often death in infancy is distinct from those with short-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency or multiple acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency. The nature of the molecular defect in this subgroup is unknown, and the source of the ethylmalonic acid has been unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the administration of candidate amino acids increased the excretion of ethylmalonic acid. DESIGN: Examination of patterns of organic acids excreted in the urine before and following loading doses of isoleucine and methionine. SETTING: General clinical research center. PATIENT: An infant with ethylmalonic aciduria, global developmental delay, acrocyanosis, and intermittent showers of petechiae. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Excretion of ethylmalonic acid in the urine. RESULTS: Loading with methionine increased the excretion of ethylmalonic acid, whereas loading with isoleucine did not. Restriction of the dietary intake of methionine decreased ethylmalonic acid excretion. CONCLUSION: In ethylmalonic acid encephalopathy with petechiae, methionine is a precursor of ethylmalonic acid.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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6/19. Death due to positional asphyxia under severe alcoholisation: pathophysiologic and forensic considerations.

    In contrary to "physical restraint", describing a fixed body position due to external devices, "positional restraint" is defined as an abnormal body position, resulting from accidental fixation under unfortunate circumstances. We report on a remarkable case of positional asphyxia of an alcoholised young man after a fall down a staircase. On external examination, the body showed petechiae of the conjunctivae and oral mucosa, abrasions on the left zygomatic region and scratch marks, respectively. Neither broken fingernails, etc. nor signs of external violence against the neck were found. autopsy revealed haemorrhages in the praevertebral cervical musculature and Simon's sign. Haemorrhagic pulmonary edema and cerebral edema were observed; blood alcohol concentration: 2.60 g/l, urine alcohol concentration: 3.26 g/l. As cause of death, positional asphyxia after blunt head trauma has to be considered as well as lethal ethanol intoxication. To us, alcoholisation attributed to the fall and together with unconsciousness following blunt head trauma circumvented self-rescue efforts, and therefore, aggravated the potentially lethal impact of positional restraint.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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7/19. Accidental childhood strangulation by human hair.

    A low-income mother is accused of child abuse after co-sleeping with, and then waking to find her 13-month-old daughter entangled and apparently strangling in the mother's hair. The baby was initially unconscious and cyanotic; revived by the time the parents reached the ER, clinical examination revealed a ligature mark on the neck and petechiae on the face. In a pro bono effort, her attorney teamed with RAM Consulting as an expert witness. RAM performed a six-part investigation including: (1) an anthropometric analysis, (2) determination of the strength of human hair, (3) characterization of the ligature mark, (4) an investigation into airway occlusion forces, (5) an investigation into the conditions required to initiate petechiae, and (6) a review of the literature. Our conclusion was that it is possible for a strangulation incident to occur when a young child is co-sleeping with a parent with long hair, and that this scenario may result in injury or death. Upon review of this report and RAM's deposition on this matter, the prosecuting attorney's expert witness withdrew her testimony and the judge dismissed the case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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8/19. Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome associated with grief complications.

    The clinical presentation of a patient with autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome associated with a complicated grief reaction is reported. A 50-year-old female patient presented with recurrent episodes of painful ecchymotic bruising on the lower extremities which started in 1995 after the sudden death of her son and exacerbated almost every year at approximately the same time her son died as an anniversary reaction. No pathological findings were detected in the laboratory examinations. The diagnosis was confirmed by induction of similar lesions by i.d. injection of the patient's own washed erythrocytes and whole blood. Psychiatric assessment revealed that the patient was depressed, socially introverted, overly defensive and avoidant in interpersonal relationships. Antidepressant treatment and psychotherapy for major depression and grief complications were started with the patient. Having an awareness of this rare condition will assist in the prevention of unnecessary investigations in such cases and will allow early referral for appropriate psychological counseling.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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9/19. An unusual mechanical asphyxia in a homicide-suicide case by smothering and strangulation.

    A very unusual homicide of 2 children by smothering and strangulation by means of a rubber adhesive band carried out by the mother who committed suicide by the same manner is presented. Smothering is supposed to be one major cause of death in child homicide. suicide by smothering is relatively uncommon. Suicidal smothering by winding strips of adhesive tape around the head to cover the nose and mouth is an even rarer method recently described in literature. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence are discussed to reduce the potential for underdiagnoses or mistakes in such cases in which it may be difficult to establish whether suicide or homicide occurred.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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10/19. Multiple hepatic tumors and peliosis hepatis in Fanconi's anemia treated with androgens.

    We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who was known to have Fanconi's anemia for five years. For treatment of this condition he was given androgens and corticosteroids. Two months before his death, severe varicella developed complicated by pneumonia, jaundice, and prolonged fever; all of which resolved during a five-week hospitalization. Three weeks later he died of clostridium septicum sepsis caused by necrotizing enterocolitis. At autopsy he was found to have multiple hepatocellular neoplasms. A striking feature of the neoplasms was cholestasis. The liver also showed peliosis hepatis. The association of the use of certain androgenic steroids with hepatic neoplasms histologically resembling hepatocarcinomas, but characterized by lack of metastases and apparent reversibility, suggests the desirability of a new nomenclature for these hepatocellular lesions.
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keywords = death
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