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1/4. Nephrobronchial fistula secondary to xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

    We report a case of staghorn nephrolithiasis that evolved into xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with perinephric abscess, nephrobronchial fistula, and lung abscess. The patient was an intravenous drug abuser who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus, without evidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He presented with a 2-month history of untreated repeated episodes of left flank pain and hyperpyrexia. Treatment involved left nephrectomy, debridement of abscess, tube drainage, and intravenous antibiotics. The patient illustrates the need to consider untreated nephrolitiasis as a predisposing factor for pulmonary complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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2/4. Unusual clinical presentation of klebsiella pneumoniae induced endogenous endophthalmitis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a non-nephrolithiasis and non-obstructive urinary tract.

    The genitourinary tract is well recognized as a route through which bacteria could gain access to the blood circulation. Under some circumstances, metastatic infections may occur in distant organs, including endogenous endophthalmitis. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is an unusual variant of chronic pyelonephritis. It most often occurs in middle-aged women who frequently have a history of recurrent urinary tract infections combined with obstruction and a kidney of poor function. We reported an unusual case of urinary tract infection in a non-nephrolithiasis and non-obstructive urinary tract complicated by klebsiella pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis and developed XGP in two months.
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ranking = 5
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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3/4. Renal tuberculosis simulating xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with contagious hepatic involvement.

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) is a chronic renal infection typically associated with nephrolithiasis and a non-functioning kidney. Renal tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. Despite recent advances in diagnosis, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate renal tuberculosis preoperatively from XGPN. We present herewith a case report of a patient who was preoperatively diagnosed with a right non-functioning kidney due to renal calculus with stage 3 XGPN and adjacent liver abscess on computed tomography. Subsequent histopathological examination of the nephrectomised specimen revealed renal tuberculosis. To our knowledge this is the first case of renal tuberculosis spreading to the liver and causing liver abscess formation which was misdiagnosed as XGPN preoperatively.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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4/4. Bilateral metachronous xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in end-stage renal failure.

    We report a case of bilateral metachronous xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) in a hemodialyzed patient with end-stage renal failure due to bilateral nephrolithiasis. The XGP was initially diagnosed by computed tomographic (CT) scan, and right nephrectomy was performed. The patient remained clinically stable for the next year. Involvement of the contralateral kidney was again confirmed by CT examination. Both kidneys showed histologic changes compatible with XGP. A coexisting nephrogenic adenoma of the bladder has been attributed to chronic urinary tract infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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