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1/121. Nephrobronchial fistula secondary to xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

    We report a case of staghorn nephrolithiasis that evolved into xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with perinephric abscess, nephrobronchial fistula, and lung abscess. The patient was an intravenous drug abuser who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus, without evidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He presented with a 2-month history of untreated repeated episodes of left flank pain and hyperpyrexia. Treatment involved left nephrectomy, debridement of abscess, tube drainage, and intravenous antibiotics. The patient illustrates the need to consider untreated nephrolitiasis as a predisposing factor for pulmonary complications. ( info)

2/121. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting as emphysematous pyelonephritis: a rare association.

    Xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis are two rare variants of pyelonephritis. Their combined occurrence is a very rare condition, which has been documented in our case. ( info)

3/121. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in an infant with an obstructed upper pole renal moiety.

    We report a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in an infant involving the upper renal pole moiety of a duplicated system associated with an obstructed ectopic ureter. It was successfully managed by an upper pole heminephroureterectomy. We also review the published reports of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in pediatric patients. ( info)

4/121. Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with associated bone metaplasia.

    Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis of the left lower pole was accidentally discovered in a 34-year-old woman at sonography. The patient had no history of stones and urinary tract infection and both conventional radiology and CT scan revealed radiated calcifications within a well-circumscribed mass. Surgical treatment consisted of enucleoresection of the lesion, and histopathology revealed a nucleus of bone metaplasia. To the best of our knowledge, metaplastic bone formation has never been documented before with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. ( info)

5/121. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: MRI findings in the diffuse and the focal type.

    Two cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) are presented with emphasis on MR appearances. One case is the diffuse type of XGP secondary to chronic obstruction caused by transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The other case is the focal or "tumefactive" type of XGP which mimics renal cell carcinoma. ( info)

6/121. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting as a pseudotumor in a 2-month-old boy.

    The authors report on a 2-month-old boy presenting with a right renal mass. Investigations including ultrasound scan and computed tomogram were suggestive of a renal tumor. A right nephrectomy was performed with great difficulty because of dense adhesions to the adjacent structures. Cut section of the specimen showed the entire kidney to be replaced by cheesy-yellow areas. Histological examination was suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Although rare at this age, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a renal mass in children. The lesion is unique among the inflammatory conditions in closely mimicking renal tumours clinically. A thorough histological examination also is suggested because the features can get confused easily with those of renal tumors. ( info)

7/121. A new cause of curvilinear renal calcification: calcified hydrocalycosis.

    Although many causes of curvilinear renal calcifications have been described, calcified hydrocalycosis mimicking hydatid cyst has not previously been reported. We report a case of hydrocalycosis which was appeared as a curvilinear calcified cystic lesion resulted from staghorn calculus associated with xanthogranolomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) on intravenous pyelography (IVU) and computed tomography (CT). ( info)

8/121. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in childhood: a rare but important clinical entity.

    PURPOSE: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) is extremely rare in children. The authors review their experience of this condition. methods: medical records were investigated to conduct a retrospective study of 4 patients with XGPN (3 boys, 1 girl; age range, 2 months to 7 years) at the authors' institute over the past 14 years. RESULTS: Three of the 4 patients presented with fever of unknown origin and 1 with general fatigue. An abdominal mass was palpable in two cases at initial presentation. Although all patients had pyuria or hematuria, preoperative urine culture was positive in only 2 cases. Preoperative radiologic studies showed that 1 kidney was affected completely in 2 cases and affected partially in 2 cases. Preoperatively, the provisional diagnosis was XGPN in 3 cases, and Wilms' tumor in 1 case. Total nephrectomy was performed in 3 cases and enucleation in 1 case. XGPN was confirmed in all cases by histopathologic studies, but the underlying disease could be identified only in 1 case (cystinuria). All patients did well postoperatively and have had no further health problems over a mean follow-up period of 4.8 years. CONCLUSIONS: XGPN should be considered when there is a history of recurrent or therapy-resistant pyelonephritis. Preoperative radiologic investigation is paramount for diagnosis, and nephrectomy is the treatment of choice, although partial resection or enucleation are adequate for partially affected kidneys. ( info)

9/121. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with a congenital caliceal diverticulum.

    We report a rare case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis occurring in a caliceal diverticulum in a 1-year-old child. She presented with recurrent urinary tract infections. A computed tomography scan demonstrated an enhancing cystic lesion in the left kidney. At open exploration, a caliceal diverticulum was found with a very stenotic opening into the renal pelvis. The diverticulum was enucleated, and the pathologic examination confirmed xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the parenchyma surrounding the diverticulum. The child did well postoperatively with no recurrence of her urinary tract infections. ( info)

10/121. Xanthogranulomatous funiculitis and epididymo-orchitis in a tetraplegic patient.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of xanthogranulomatous funiculitis and epididymo-orchitis. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is an uncommon, non-neoplastic process characterised by destruction of tissue, which is replaced by a striking cellular infiltrate of lipid-laden macrophages. CASE REPORT: A 21-year male sustained complete tetraplegia at C-6 level, after a fall in 1998. The neuropathic bladder was managed with an indwelling urethral catheter. He had many unsuccessful trials of micturition. Sixteen months after the cervical injury, he noticed swelling of the left side of the scrotum following removal of a blocked catheter. He was prescribed antibacterial therapy. Four weeks later, physical examination revealed a hard and irregular swelling encompassing the testis, epididymis and spermatic cord. The clinical diagnosis was epididymo-orchitis progressing to pyocele. Through a scrotal incision, the swollen testis, epididymis and diseased segment of the spermatic cord were removed en masse. Histopathology showed extensive areas of necrosis, with xanthogranulomatous inflammation in the spermatic cord and to a lesser extent in the testis/epididymis. CONCLUSION: Repeated episodes of high-pressure urinary reflux along the vas deferens during dyssynergic voiding, and subsequent interstitial extravasation of urine together with chronic, low-grade, suppurative infection possibly led to development of xanthogranulomatous inflammation in the testis and the epididymis. Since tissue destruction is a feature of xanthogranulomatous inflammation, the definite and curative treatment is either complete (or, where applicable, partial) excision of the affected organ in most of the cases. ( info)
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