Cases reported "Quadriplegia"

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1/42. Parenchymatous cerebral neurocysticercosis in a quadriplegic patient.

    OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss a case of cerebral neurocysticercosis in a quadriplegic patient. DESIGN: Case report of a case of neurocysticercosis in a high level spinal cord injury (SCI) patient who developed episodes of autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension associated with transient neurologic deficits and seizures. SETTING: spinal cord Unit of the University Hospital of Geneva, switzerland. SUBJECT: Single patient case report. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical and radiological magnetic resonance imaging follow-up of the patient between July 1995 and October 1997. RESULTS: Treatment of cysticercosis with praziquantel relieved the patient from autonomic dysreflexia, symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, transitory neurological deficits and seizures. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a quadriplegic patient might be difficult because of frequent overlaps with some usual symptoms occurring in high level SCI, mostly autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension. neurocysticercosis should be kept in mind when a SCI patient living in, or coming from endemic zones presents with new neurological abnormalities and seizures. magnetic resonance imaging appears to be more sensitive than computerised tomography to confirm the diagnosis of active cysticercosis. Treatment with praziquantel associated with cimetidine to increase the drug bioavailability and prednisone to reduce the inflammatory reaction gives good results.
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ranking = 1
keywords = autonomic dysreflexia, dysreflexia
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2/42. Refractory heterotopic ossification with complications.

    BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) following spinal cord injury can lead to various complications, including venous thrombosis, autonomic dysreflexia, and pressure ulcers. We report refractory, complicated HO in a 19-year-old man with C8 incomplete tetraplegia. He first presented at 9 weeks postinjury with fever and swelling of his right leg. Ultrasound indicated a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Persistent symptoms prompted triple-phase bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which revealed HO compressing the right external iliac vein and no evidence of DVT. The HO was complicated by hypercoagulability. CLINICAL COURSE: The HO was refractory to oral indomethacin and etidronate; therefore, intravenous etidronate was instituted, resulting in only a transient decrease in alkaline phosphatase. Local irradiation of the right hip did not decrease the activity of HO. The patient was discharged on oral etidronate, indomethacin, and warfarin. This complicated case raises issues regarding early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of HO, as well as treatment of associated hypercoagulability.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = autonomic dysreflexia, dysreflexia
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3/42. autonomic dysreflexia associated with transient aphasia.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report of autonomic dysreflexia presenting with transient aphasia in a subject with C4 tetraplegia. OBJECTIVES: To report a rare case of autonomic dysreflexia. SETTING: rehabilitation Service, The ohio State University, USA. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old man with a C4 spinal cord injury (ASIA B) developed aphasia associated with autonomic dysreflexia. He was treated with an adrenergic blocking agent. CONCLUSION: autonomic dysreflexia manifested by a transient aphasia and seizures is uncommon.
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ranking = 1.6151498544724
keywords = autonomic dysreflexia, dysreflexia
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4/42. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal mimicking sepsis.

    baclofen (Lioresal) is a drug of choice to treat spasticity and is increasingly being administered intrathecally via an implantable pump in cases refractory to oral therapy. Emergency physicians will likely treat patients with baclofen withdrawal or overdose as this treatment becomes more widespread. The syndrome of baclofen withdrawal presents with altered mental status, fever, tachycardia, hypertension or hypotension, seizures, and rebound spasticity, and may be fatal if not treated appropriately. baclofen withdrawal may mimic other diseases including sepsis, meningitis, autonomic dysreflexia, malignant hyperthermia, or neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Treatment consists of supportive care, reinstitution of baclofen, benzodiazepines, and diagnosis and eventual repair of intrathecal pump and catheter malfunction.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = autonomic dysreflexia, dysreflexia
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5/42. An unusual cause of autonomic dysreflexia: pheochromocytoma in an individual with tetraplegia.

    BACKGROUND: autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a frequent, serious acute syndrome that occurs in patients with spinal cord lesions at level T6 and above. The syndrome is caused by massive sympathetic discharge that is triggered by a noxious stimulus below the level of the spinal cord lesion. Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors that present with symptoms similar to AD. methods: Case Report. FINDINGS: A 50-year-old man with C7 American Spinal Injury association scale A tetraplegia presented with episodes of severe headaches and paroxysmal hypertension. He was diagnosed with AD. Despite resolving bladder and bowel problems, he continued to have hypertensive episodes. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed a heterogeneous left adrenal mass. Further workup revealed significantly elevated serum and 24-hour urinary catecholamines. clonidine failed to fully suppress the markedly elevated concentrations of serum catecholamines. These biochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Prior to surgery, the patient was treated with alpha-receptor blockers and volume expansion with intravenous fluids. A left adrenalectomy was performed. The surgical specimen revealed that the adrenal gland was expanded by a spherical mass. The pathologic report was benign pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland. CONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms and hypertensive episodes resolved following adrenalectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a pheochromocytoma in an individual with spinal cord injury.
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ranking = 1.4563633042278
keywords = autonomic dysreflexia, dysreflexia
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6/42. Intraspinal synovial cyst at the craniocervical junction.

    A cystic lesion adjacent to the dens with compression of the lower portion of the medulla oblongata was found on MRI in a 75-year-old male patient with a 2-month history of occipital pain and gait disturbance. Clinically, the patient showed mild tetraparesis, signs of spinal ataxia and symmetrical hyperreflexia. Following subtotal removal of the cyst via left-sided suboccipital craniotomy and left-sided hemilaminectomy of C1 the lesion was classified as synovial cyst on histopathological examination. Postoperatively, the quadriparesis almost completely subsided and the patient is currently doing well, 33 months after surgery. Synovial or ganglion cysts adjacent to the atlantoaxial articulation with ventral compression of the cervicomedullar cord represent rare surgical or radiological entities. Atlantoaxial synovial cysts have no typical radiographic appearance or specific neurological symptoms so that they are frequently misdiagnosed as intraspinal- or skull base tumour, rheumatoid lesion or ectatic vertebral artery. Since no ensuing complications or recurrences have been encountered in cases of incompletely removed cysts the less invasive operative approaches should be used to avoid destabilisation and subsequent additional surgical procedures.
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ranking = 0.014287019011776
keywords = hyperreflexia
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7/42. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis: clinical features of 62 cases and a subgroup associated with guillain-barre syndrome.

    Bickerstaff reported eight patients who, in addition to acute ophthalmoplegia and ataxia, showed drowsiness, extensor plantar responses or hemisensory loss. This condition has been named Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). One patient had gross flaccid weakness in the four limbs. Presumably because of the rarity of this disorder, there has been no reported study on a large number of patients with BBE. To clarify its clinical features, we reviewed detailed clinical profiles and laboratory findings for 62 cases of BBE diagnosed by the strict criteria of progressive, relatively symmetrical external ophthalmoplegia and ataxia by 4 weeks, and disturbance of consciousness or hyperreflexia. Ninety-two per cent of the patients involved had had an antecedent illness. Besides ophthalmoplegia and ataxia, disturbance of consciousness was frequent (74%), and facial diplegia (45%), Babinski's sign (40%) and pupillary abnormality and bulbar palsy (34%) were present. Almost all the patients had a monophasic remitting course and generally a good outcome. serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibody was positive in 66%, and MRI showed brain abnormality in 30% of the patients. Another striking feature was the association with flaccid symmetrical tetraparesis, seen in 60% of the patients. An autopsy study of a BBE patient clearly showed the presence of definite inflammatory changes in the brainstem: there was perivascular lymphocytic infiltration with oedema and glial nodules. Electrodiagnostic study results suggested peripheral motor axonal degeneration. Limb weakness in the BBE cases studied was considered the result of overlap with the axonal subtype of guillain-barre syndrome. These findings confirm that BBE constitutes a clinical entity and provide additional clinical and laboratory features of BBE. A considerable number of BBE patients have associated axonal guillain-barre syndrome, indicative that the two disorders are closely related and form a continuous spectrum.
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ranking = 0.014287019011776
keywords = hyperreflexia
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8/42. anesthesia for temporomandibular arthroplasty in a quadriplegic patient: a case report.

    A 41-year-old male quadriplegic patient with bilateral TMJ ankylosis was admitted for surgery under general anesthesia. Preoperative tests showed abnormal lung function and a low total serum calcium level. premedication consisted of diazepam 10 mg orally and glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg intramuscularly 90 minutes before the start of the operation. Because of an inability to open the mouth more than 0.5 cm, a nasal fiberoptic endoscopic intubation was done under sedation and local anesthesia. For maintenance of anesthesia the patient received nitrous oxide 50% in oxygen, halothane, and alfentanil. No muscle relaxant was administered. The 2-hour operation was completed uneventfully and the patient needed no ventilatory support afterward. Major anesthetic problems of spinal injury patients can be compared to those with cervical cord transection. The stage that the condition has reached determines the dominant anesthetic problems. The chronic stage (greater than 3 months postinjury, as in this patient) is usually characterized by sympathetic overactivity. Anesthetic problems during this stage may include risk of hyperkalemia from succinylcholine, cardiovascular instability and autonomic hyperreflexia, impaired thermoregulation, anemia, chronic infections, risk of hypercalcemia, and alveolar hypoventilation. None of these problems was encountered in this patient. A surprising finding was that the low serum calcium concentration did not influence the anesthetic outcome.
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ranking = 0.07713265903557
keywords = autonomic hyperreflexia, hyperreflexia
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9/42. Unique considerations for the spinal cord injured patient undergoing cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    A 37-year-old male with mitral valve regurgitation presented for mitral valve replacement. He has been a C5 quadriplegic for 13 years. The patient had been discharged 2 months before to this admission after a complicated hospital course for staphylococcus aureus infection of the left hip. His course was complicated by adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring prolonged intubation, acute renal failure (ARF) requiring dialysis, 10-day coma, and bacterial endocarditis now requiring mitral valve replacement. After initial stabilization with antibiotics and gradual improvement of the multiorgan system failure, the patient presented for valve replacement and worsening congestive heart failure (CHF). Para- and quadriplegic patients rarely undergo cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The explanation for this low incidence of heart surgery in this patient population ranges from physiologic changes from the spinal cord injury to their relatively short life span. Therefore, there is no vast knowledge of how these patients with spinal cord injury will physiologically respond to CPB. Chronic paraplegia presents unique anesthetic and perfusion challenges. General anesthesia for a patient with prolonged spinal cord damage can be difficult because of dysreflexia, muscle wasting, and potassium changes with depolarizing muscle relaxants. For the perfusionist, chronic paraplegia also accentuates hemodynamic responses to nonpulsatile flow with low peripheral vascular resistance common and difficult to treat. Dramatic increases in circulating catecholamine levels are a secondary result of the initiation of CPB that can cause a hypo- and hypertensive state. Depending on the level of spinal cord injury, one might expect acute hypo- or hypertension with the various phases of open-heart surgery and CPB. A viscous circle may occur because the hypertensive state is exaggerated because of inhibitory signals not passed below the spinal cord lesion and, therefore, the vasoconstrictive reflex continues unabated. The attack usually occurs abruptly and can lead to cerebrovascular hemorrhage and death if not controlled. Fortunately, we found this patient did not develop mass autonomic dysreflexia and was not difficult to wean from CPB. The problems associated with spinal cord injury present potential complications to this patient population. Numerous triggering mechanisms may lead to a variety of clinical complications. Consideration of a response/ treatment management plan for potential problems must be exercised by the surgical team.
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ranking = 0.45636330422782
keywords = autonomic dysreflexia, dysreflexia
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10/42. autonomic dysreflexia after intramuscular injection in traumatic tetraplegia: a case report.

    autonomic dysreflexia is a syndrome of massive imbalance of reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with spinal cord lesion above the splanchnic outflow (T6). It is characterized by a sudden onset and severe increase in blood pressure and is potentially life threatening. The most common causes are bladder and rectum distention. In this case study, we report an autonomic dysreflexia case that developed after intramuscular injection in a 29-yr-old tetraplegic patient with C5 American Spinal Injury association grade A lesion. After careful scrutiny of English literature, this clinical manifestation seems to be an unusual event.
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ranking = 0.94848318780576
keywords = autonomic dysreflexia, dysreflexia
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