Cases reported "Quadriplegia"

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1/43. Use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia for acute pain management in a patient with quadriplegia.

    We report the use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia (PCA) for the provision of analgesia in a quadriplegic patient with traumatic neck injury. This provided good pain relief, decreased opioid complications, improved perceptions of self-control, smoothed recovery and enhanced patient, family as well as staff satisfaction. The setup and principles of its use in a patient with high anxiety and unable to use conventionally activated PCA are illustrated.
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2/43. Tracheocarotid artery fistula infected with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.

    Massive life-threatening haemorrhage from a fistula between the trachea and a major blood vessel of the neck is a rare complication of the tracheostomy procedure, well-recognized by anaesthetists and otolaryngologists. Although the lesion is likely to be encountered at autopsy, it is not described in histopathological literature. The possible causes are discussed together with the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of the lesion. Suitable procedures for its identification and for obtaining appropriate histopathological blocks are suggested. Presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has not been documented before and might have contributed to the genesis of the fistula in this case.
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3/43. Acute cervical epidural hematoma: case report.

    A 74 year-old patient with a nocturnal onset of neck and chest pain was brought to an emergency clinic. physical examination and cardiac assessment were normal. Three hours after the addmittance, a flaccid paralysis of the four limbs supervened. Suspecting of an unusual onset of central nervous system infection, a lumbar puncture was performed, yielding 20 ml of normal cerebrospinal fluid. Thirty oinutes after the puncture, the patient completely regained neurological funcion. He was then referred to a General Hospital where a computed tomography (CT) scan was done showing a large cervical epidural bleeding in the posterolateral region of C4/C5 extending to C7/Th1, along with a C6 vertebral body hemangioma. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed the same CT findings. A normal selective angiography of vertebral arteries, carotid arteries and thyreocervical trunk was carried out. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (ASSEH) is a rare but dramatic cause of neurological impairment. In this article we report a fortunate case of complete recovery after an unusual spine cord decompression. We also review the current literature concerning diagnosis and treatment of ASSEH.
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4/43. An unusual stab wound of the cervical spinal cord: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A rare case of a laterally directed stab wound injury of the cervical spinal cord is reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe the unusual mechanism of injury of this case and its clinical features. The surgical indications for penetrating injuries of the spinal cord are discussed. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal stab wound injuries are rare, and the literature on the subject is scant. There has been only one large clinical review from south africa, published in 1977. The clinical features and the injury mechanism of a laterally directed stab wound to the cervical spine have not been previously described. methods: An 18-year-old man was stabbed in the right side of the neck at C1-C2. The blade penetrated the spine laterally and went through the ligaments without affecting the bony structures. On admission the patient had tetraplegia and was in respiratory failure. Radiologic investigation showed the retained blade passing through the cord but showed no bony or vascular injuries. RESULTS: Before extraction, the knife was followed to its tip with careful dissection. Because no cerebrospinal fluid leak was noted in the area, the dura was not exposed. After surgery, magnetic resonance images showed a complete transection of the spinal cord at C1-C2. The patient was neurologically unchanged in follow-up examinations. CONCLUSION: Laterally directed horizontal stab wounds of the spine are particularly dangerous because the blade can pass between two vertebrae to transect the cord. The neurologic injury that results is irreversible. The more common stab wounds, inflicted from behind, usually produce incomplete cord damage.
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5/43. quadriplegia in a patient who underwent posterior fossa surgery in the prone position. Case report.

    quadriplegia is a well-known complication of posterior fossa surgery performed while the patient is in the sitting position but is rarely associated with the prone position. A case of an 18-year-old man with a cerebellar medulloblastoma is described. There was no evidence of previous cervical disease. The patient suffered quadriplegia after undergoing surgery in the prone position. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a long hyperintense C2-T1 lesion on T2-weighted sequences. The authors speculate that, during the prolonged period in which the neck was in hyperflexion, overstretching of the cervical spinal cord and compromise of its blood supply might have caused this devastating complication.
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6/43. Glossopharyngeal and neck accessory muscle breathing in a young adult with C2 complete tetraplegia resulting in ventilator dependency.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This case report describes the use of glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) and neck accessory muscle breathing (NAMB) in the treatment of an individual who was dependent on a ventilator secondary to a spinal cord injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 19-year-old man with C2 complete tetraplegia. He received a 5-week inpatient program of GPB training 3 to 4 times per week. A 4-week NAMB training program followed. OUTCOME: Following GPB training, forced vital capacity increased 35-fold, time off the ventilator improved from 0 to 30 minutes, and a nonfunctional cough became a weak functional cough. After NAMB training, the patient was able to be off the ventilator for 2 minutes. DISCUSSION: Increased ventilatory capability has the potential to affect patients' quality of life by improving cough function and decreasing dependence on a ventilator in the event of accidental disconnection.
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7/43. Acute neurologic deficit associated with a posterior cervical drain: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive. OBJECTIVES: To document a rare complication involving the use of a wound drain after cervical laminectomy. SUMMARY OF THE BACKGROUND DATA: No previous reports describe spinal cord compression by a surgical drain resulting in a neurologic deficit. Most texts recommend the use of a drain following this procedure. methods: An 80-year-old female underwent cervical laminectomy for myelopathy with initial improvement in symptoms. Approximately 6 hours following surgery, she developed acute onset of quadriparesis when repositioning in bed. magnetic resonance imaging revealed cord compression by the surgical drain, which was immediately removed. RESULTS: The patient experienced partial improvement of the neurologic deficit. At 18-month follow-up, left handed weakness, left leg spasticity, and neurogenic bladder persist. CONCLUSION: The development of neurologic deficits due to compression by a surgical drain can occur. This complication might be avoided by approximating the neck musculature before placement of the drain and closure of the fascia.
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8/43. An unusual case of CV junction tuberculosis presenting with quadriplegia.

    STUDY DESIGN: Isolated tubercular involvement of craniovertebral junction in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient causing paraplegia and sudden death with radiologic features is presented. OBJECTIVES: Isolated involvement of craniovertebral junction by tuberculosis causing quadriparesis is a rare entity. The role of imaging features is presented in diagnosis of craniovertebral junction tuberculosis, which is a treatable disease. Early detection of this entity with prompt treatment can prevent a fatal outcome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: tuberculosis of the cervical spine is a rare and potentially dangerous manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence is probably less than 1% of all cases of spinal tuberculosis. However, in the developing countries this constitutes an increasingly important cause of craniovertebral junction instability and cervicomedullary compression. Most of the patients present with pain in the neck and local tenderness. Neurologic deficits of varying degrees have been reported in 24-40% of cases of craniovertebral junction tuberculosis. quadriplegia followed by sudden death is exceptional (as seen in our case). The incidence of craniovertebral junction tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients is not known. Dramatic recovery is possible if craniovertebral junction tuberculosis is detected early in its course. Prompt medical and surgical treatment may avert a potential catastrophic event in such cases. Imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are diagnostic of this condition and aid in the detection and prompt treatment of the same. METHOD: Frontal radiograph of the cervical spine and chest, and lateral view of cervical spine followed by plain and contrast enhanced computed tomography scan of the cervical spine was performed to detect the lesion. RESULT: These radiographic features were correlated with the clinical findings. The computed tomography findings of bone destruction, prevertebral and extradural peripherally enhancing soft tissue and infiltrating opacities in the lung apexes were consistent with tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The computed tomography findings described in this report are very specific for tuberculosis of the craniovertebral junction. Clinical and radiologic correlation could help in making the early diagnosis and prompt treatment possible.
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9/43. Tetraplegia after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    The authors present a rare case of a cervical cord dysfunction after uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting. The preoperative neurological examination did not reveal any abnormalities; however, the postoperative magnetic resonance image showed significant spinal canal stenosis at the same levels as high signal lesions. Although the pathophysiological basis of the case was impossible to determine retrospectively, it seems probable that placing the neck in an extended position during surgery might have aggravated a preexisting spinal canal stenosis to produce cervical injury. IMPLICATIONS: The authors present a rare case of tetraplegia after coronary artery bypass grafting. It is suggested that neck extension during surgery might have aggravated an occult preexisting cervical spinal canal stenosis to produce cervical injury.
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10/43. Expiratory-synchronized sleep in a quadriplegic patient using inspiratory neck muscles to breathe.

    In a patient with C3 quadriplegia causing complete diaphragm paralysis who developed inspiratory neck muscles (INM) hypertrophy to sustain ventilation, spontaneous breathing deeply altered sleep architecture, relegating sleep to the expiratory phase of the ventilatory cycle. A polysomnographic recording performed during mechanical ventilation (without INM activity), showed that sleep was abnormal but unaffected by the respiratory cycle. During spontaneous breathing, the polygraphic recordings showed expiratory microsleep episodes, with inspiratory arousals synchronous to bursts of INM activity. This case report illustrates the powerful adaptability of the respiratory and sleep control systems to maintain each vital function.
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