Cases reported "Quadriplegia"

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1/29. Cerebral dissection from syringomyelia demonstrated using cine magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    A 16-year-old boy presented at the authors' emergency department with a sudden deterioration of respiration. He had been paraparetic for 3 years and had become quadriplegic 2 days previously. Magnetic resonance images revealed a Chiari I malformation and a hydromyelic cavity extending from C-1 to T-11. Rostrally, a small cylindrically shaped lesion extended from the cervicomedullary junction to the left semioval center. The patient made a dramatic neurological recovery following suboccipital craniectomy and upper cervical laminectomies with augmentation duraplasties followed by placement of a syringoperitoneal shunt.
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2/29. Glossopharyngeal and neck accessory muscle breathing in a young adult with C2 complete tetraplegia resulting in ventilator dependency.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This case report describes the use of glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) and neck accessory muscle breathing (NAMB) in the treatment of an individual who was dependent on a ventilator secondary to a spinal cord injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 19-year-old man with C2 complete tetraplegia. He received a 5-week inpatient program of GPB training 3 to 4 times per week. A 4-week NAMB training program followed. OUTCOME: Following GPB training, forced vital capacity increased 35-fold, time off the ventilator improved from 0 to 30 minutes, and a nonfunctional cough became a weak functional cough. After NAMB training, the patient was able to be off the ventilator for 2 minutes. DISCUSSION: Increased ventilatory capability has the potential to affect patients' quality of life by improving cough function and decreasing dependence on a ventilator in the event of accidental disconnection.
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3/29. Traumatic tetraplegia: noninvasive respiratory management in the acute setting.

    A 15-yr-old patient with high-level spinal cord injury developed ventilatory failure 24 hr after hospital admission and required continuous ventilatory support. Although he lost all ventilator-free breathing tolerance, he was managed by receiving noninvasive intermittent positive-pressure ventilation rather than intermittent positive-pressure ventilation via an endotracheal intubation. Cooperative, uncomplicated, acutely injured patients with spinal cord injury who develop ventilatory failure are candidates to use noninvasive intermittent positive-pressure ventilation to avoid intubation.
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4/29. Aerophagia as a cause of ineffective phrenic nerve pacing in high tetraplegia: a case report.

    We report an unusual case of aerophagia after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), which shows the profound effects of abdominal distension on respiratory ability in such individuals. In this case, abdominal distension resulting from aerophagia reduced the effectiveness of phrenic nerve pacing on diaphragm function necessitating greater use of positive-pressure ventilatory (PPV) support. Reduction of postprandial gastric air and abdominal distension with insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube ameliorated the condition and allowed for more effective phrenic nerve pacing and greater PPV-free breathing. We are unaware of a similar case involving an individual with an SCI.
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5/29. Breathlessness associated with abdominal spastic contraction in a patient with C4 tetraplegia: a case report.

    A tetraplegic patient with C4 cervical cord injury reported breathlessness during episodes of spastic contraction of the abdominal muscles. To determine the mechanism, we performed electrophysiologic testing of the phrenic nerves. We measured abdominal pressure, esophageal pressure, and transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) during a maximal inspiratory effort (Pdi max), a maximal sniff maneuver (sniff Pdi) during resting breathing, and during the episodes of breathlessness. Electrophysiologic testing of the phrenic nerves showed axonal neuropathy on the left. Sniff Pdi and Pdi max were 38cmH(2)O and 42cmH(2)O, respectively. Transient spastic contractions of abdominal muscles were associated with an increase in abdominal pressure greater than 30cmH(2)O, with a decrease in abdominal volume; this rise in abdominal pressure was transmitted to the esophageal pressure. Inspiration became effective only when esophageal pressure fell below the resting baseline value. Achieving this decrease required an increase in inspiratory effort, characterized by swings in esophageal pressure and Pdi of 30cmH(2)O and 40cmH(2)O (approximately 100% of Pdi max), respectively. During these periods, minute ventilation was markedly reduced. This is the first report that spastic abdominal muscle contractions can impose a significant load on the diaphragm, uncovering moderate diaphragmatic weakness. This has important clinical implications; abolition of the spastic abdominal muscle contraction in this patient completely resolved her intermittent respiratory symptoms.
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6/29. phrenic nerve pacing in two young quadriplegic ventilator-dependent patients.

    patients who survive high cervical injury are usually dependent on mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy if the lesion above C3 is complete. We report our experience with phrenic nerve pacing (PNP) to achieve ventilator-independence in two young quadriplegic patients. A diaphragm conditioning programme, and combination of low frequency electrophrenic stimulation within each inspiratory burst and low breathing frequency enabled both patients initially to achieve continuous 24 hour ventilation independent of mechanical ventilation. One patient reverted to overnight mechanical ventilation (six hours) after three years. PNP should be considered in ventilator dependent patients with high cervical injury to achieve independence and improve quality of life.
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7/29. Reduced tidal volume increases 'air hunger' at fixed PCO2 in ventilated quadriplegics.

    The act of breathing diminishes the discomfort associated with hypercapnia and breath-holding. To investigate the mechanisms involved in this effect, we studied the effect of tidal volume (VT) on CO2-evoked air hunger in 5 high-level quadriplegic subjects whose ventilatory capacity was negligible, and who lacked sensory information from the chest wall. Subjects were ventilated at constant frequency with a hyperoxic gas mixture, and end-tidal PCO2 was maintained at a constant but elevated level. VT was varied between the subjects' normal VT and a smaller VT. Subjects used a category scale to rate their respiratory discomfort or 'air hunger' at 30-40 sec intervals. In 4 of 5 subjects there was a strong inverse relationship between breath size and air hunger ratings. The quality of the sensation associated with reduced VT was nearly identical to that previously experienced with CO2 alone. We conclude that afferent information from the lungs and upper airways is sufficient to modify the sensation of air hunger.
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8/29. Expiratory-synchronized sleep in a quadriplegic patient using inspiratory neck muscles to breathe.

    In a patient with C3 quadriplegia causing complete diaphragm paralysis who developed inspiratory neck muscles (INM) hypertrophy to sustain ventilation, spontaneous breathing deeply altered sleep architecture, relegating sleep to the expiratory phase of the ventilatory cycle. A polysomnographic recording performed during mechanical ventilation (without INM activity), showed that sleep was abnormal but unaffected by the respiratory cycle. During spontaneous breathing, the polygraphic recordings showed expiratory microsleep episodes, with inspiratory arousals synchronous to bursts of INM activity. This case report illustrates the powerful adaptability of the respiratory and sleep control systems to maintain each vital function.
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keywords = breathing
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9/29. Locked-in syndrome due to metastatic pontomedullary tumor--case report.

    A 21-year-old man presented with an extremely rare case of locked-in syndrome caused by a metastatic brainstem tumor manifesting as quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve pareses, and irregular respiration. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large pontomedullary tumor. An emergency operation was performed via a posterior fossa approach and the tumor was grossly totally removed. The histological diagnosis was malignant melanoma. The clinical status of the patient remained unchanged and he died on postoperative day 34 of diffuse bronchopneumonia. Locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism but with maintenance of consciousness, as well as vertical eye movements and eyelid blinking. This case suggests that locked-in syndrome should be considered in any patient seemingly comatose or stuporous, this syndrome may be due to a pontomedullary tumor, and malignant melanoma metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with brainstem tumor.
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10/29. Efficacy of glossopharyngeal breathing for a ventilator-dependent, high-level tetraplegic patient after cervical cord tumor resection and tracheotomy.

    This case study was undertaken to describe the use and limitations of glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) by a ventilator-dependent, tracheotomized patient after cervical tumor resection. A 6-yr, 8-mo-old, tracheotomized, ventilator-dependent boy, after cervical tumor resection, learned GPB on his own and used it for ventilator-free breathing. Over the next 16 yrs, his GPB efficacy improved to the point that, with a vital capacity of 670 ml, his GPB maximum single-breath capacity increased to 3300 ml. This was limited by the fact that at 2.9 l of lung volume, air began to leak around the tracheostomy tube walls and out of the stoma. Still, GPB permitted up to 12 hrs/day of ventilator-free breathing. Measurements of assisted peak cough flow and GPB lung insufflations exceeding vital capacity are the main measures that demonstrate adequate tube fit to permit effective GPB in the presence of an indwelling tracheostomy tube.
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