Cases reported "Rabies"

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11/43. Human rabies: a reemerging disease in costa rica?

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in costa rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector.
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12/43. Case report: isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2a from a fatal human case of rabies encephalitis.

    A 55-year-old bat conservationist was admitted to Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, scotland, on November 11, 2002, with an acute haematemesis. He gave a 5-day history of pain and paraesthesia in the left arm, followed by increasing weakness of his limbs with evidence of an evolving encephalitis with cerebellar involvement. The patient had never been vaccinated against rabies and did not receive postexposure treatment. Using a hemi-nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), saliva samples taken intravitam from different dates proved positive for rabies. A 400-bp region of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced for confirmation and identified a strain of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 2a. The diagnosis was confirmed using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and by RT-PCR on three brain samples (cerebellum, medulla, and hippocampus) taken at autopsy. In addition, a mouse inoculation test (MIT) was performed. Between 13 and 17 days postinfection, clinical signs of a rabies-like illness had developed in all five inoculated mice. brain smears from each infected animal were positive by the FAT and viable virus was isolated. This fatal incident is only the second confirmed case of an EBLV type-2 infection in a human after exposure to bats.
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13/43. First human death associated with raccoon rabies--virginia, 2003.

    Rabies is an acute, progressive, incurable viral encephalitis, caused by the bite of an infected animal. In March 2003, a previously healthy man aged 25 years from northern virginia died from a diagnosed illness of meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology after a 3-week illness. Histopathologic review of central nervous system tissues at CDC revealed viral inclusions suggestive of Negri bodies, and subsequent tests confirmed a diagnosis of rabies. Genetic sequencing identified a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons, but how the patient became infected remains unknown. This report summarizes the investigation of the first documented case of human rabies associated with a raccoon rabies virus variant in the united states and highlights the importance of continued education in the prevention and diagnosis of rabies.
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14/43. Recovery of a patient from clinical rabies--wisconsin, 2004.

    Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system, usually contracted from the bite of an infected animal, and is nearly always fatal without proper postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). In October 2004, a previously healthy female aged 15 years in Fond du Lac County, wisconsin, received a diagnosis of rabies after being bitten by a bat approximately 1 month before symptom onset. This report summarizes the investigation conducted by the wisconsin Division of public health (WDPH), the public health response in Fond du Lac County, and the patient's clinical course through December 17. This is the first documented recovery from clinical rabies by a patient who had not received either pre- or postexposure prophylaxis for rabies.
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15/43. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1990.

    In 1990, the united states and its territories reported 4,881 cases of rabies in animals to the Centers for disease Control, a 1.5% increase from 1989. Of these, 553 were domestic animals, 4,327 were wild animals, and one was a human being. pennsylvania reported the highest number (611) of rabies cases in animals in 1990. For the first time since surveillance of rabies in wild animals was begun in the 1950s, the number of cases of rabies in raccoons exceeded that in skunks. Particularly large increases of cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals were reported in new jersey (469 cases in 1990 compared with 50 cases in 1989, an increase of 838% from 1989) and new york (242 cases in 1990 compared with 54 cases in 1989, an increase of 348%). The 1,821 cases of rabies in raccoons represented a 17.9% increase over those reported in 1989 and 24.5% over those in 1988. This increase was largely attributable to the larger number of rabid raccoons in new jersey and new york. Other states that reported an increased number of rabies cases in animals in 1990 included utah (77.8%), louisiana (64.7%), north dakota (60.3%), arizona (28.6%), oklahoma (27.5%), delaware (22.2%), and maryland (20.6%). Thirty states reported a decrease in the number of cases of rabies in animals.
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16/43. Human rabies--florida, 2004.

    Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system, usually contracted from the bite of an infected animal, and nearly always fatal without postexposure prophylaxis. In February 2004, a man aged 41 years died after a 4-day hospitalization in Broward County, florida. A diagnosis of rabies was considered on the day before the patient's death; however, no antemortem samples were obtained for testing. In March 2004, postmortem samples of fixed brain material were sent to CDC, where laboratory testing confirmed a diagnosis of rabies, the 47th case of human rabies reported in the united states since 1990 (CDC, unpublished data, 2005). This report summarizes results of the subsequent investigation led by the Broward County Health Department and laboratory testing at CDC, which determined that the rabies virus was a canine variant present in haiti, where the man had traveled and reportedly been bitten by a dog. Rabies should be considered in persons after a dog bite, especially if the bite occurs in a country where canine rabies is enzootic.
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17/43. rabies virus infection in a pet guinea pig and seven pet rabbits.

    Raccoon-variant rabies was confirmed in 7 pet rabbits and 1 pet guinea pig in new york State, and postexposure treatment was required in several adults and children. To prevent rabies virus infection, domestic rabbits and pet rodents should be protected from contact with wild animals, including double-cage housing when housed outside. Pet rabbits or rodents with any possible contact with a wild animal, particularly if the rabbit or rodent had wounds of unknown origin, should be quarantined for 6 months for observation, to prevent escape, and to avoid contact with humans, who will require treatment if the rabbit or rodent develops rabies. Bites and scratches to humans from rodents and lagomorphs should be evaluated for potential rabies exposure on an individual basis, with consideration of whether the animal was caged outside or permitted outdoors unsupervised.
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18/43. Rabies case in new south wales, 1990: public health aspects.

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the source of rabies in the recent case in new south wales, and to determine the need for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis among contacts of the patient. DESIGN: Information was obtained by face-to-face interview of the dead girl's family and face-to-face and telephone interviews using a questionnaire of health care workers. Other information was gathered from overseas and local sources through telephone and facsimile contact. RESULTS: The girl had migrated from vietnam in 1984 to hong kong, and from there in 1986 to australia. No evidence of contact with a rabid animal in australia or hong kong was found. There had also been no organ donations from the girl. Four health care workers were given post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the lack of evidence of animal contact in australia and the fact that extremely long incubation periods for rabies have been documented, it was considered that the most likely source of the rabies virus was North vietnam. Genetic studies of the virus also supported a South-East Asian source. Nevertheless the presumed incubation period--at least six years and four months--is one of the longest recorded.
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19/43. Measures to control an imported case of canine rabies in france.

    france has been free from terrestrial rabies since 2001. On 21 August 2004, a female dog aged 4 months died in Gironde (south-west france), after experiencing clinical symptoms suggestive of rabies for 3 days. On 26 August, a diagnosis of rabies was confirmed by the Pasteur Institute. This paper describes the measures that were taken to manage the risks to human and animal health, and analyses the alert raised in france as a result of this imported case of rabies, the third such case in 2004.
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20/43. Evaluation of cases admitted to a center in Istanbul, turkey in 2003 for rabies vaccination and three rabies cases followed up in the last 15 years.

    We evaluated the cases of 7,266 individuals who applied to our hospital's Center for Rabies vaccination between January and December 2003. Among 1,831 female and 5,435 male cases, 37% were given 3 doses of vaccination, 14% were given 5 doses, and in 24% of cases a 2-1-1 vaccination schedule was applied. Antirabies serum of horse origin was given in 179 cases. Regarding the wounds, 83% were superficial and 17% were deep. Most of the cases involved dog bites (74%). Of the dogs involved, 30% were pets (with owners). Only a few (6%) of those pets had been vaccinated. Of the 2 dogs investigated for rabies in Pendik Veterinarian research Institute, none were found to harbor the disease. In the last 15 years, 3 cases were followed up with a diagnosis of human rabies in our clinic. Domestic animals (without owners, living a somewhat wild life in cities) are still the cause of many rabies cases. As rabies carries a very high fatality risk, public health precautions and education are important as well as post-exposure prophylaxis.
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