Cases reported "Rabies"

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1/40. Human rabies--virginia, 1998.

    On December 31, 1998, a 29-year-old man in Richmond, virginia, died from rabies encephalitis caused by a rabies virus variant associated with insectivorous bats. This report summarizes the clinical and epidemiologic investigations by the virginia Department of Health and CDC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/40. Correlation of clinical and neuroimaging findings in a case of rabies encephalitis.

    BACKGROUND: Rabies encephalitis is a feared, virtually uniformly fatal form of central nervous system infection. The incidence of rabies encephalitis in the united states is almost certainly underestimated because of the predominance of bat-borne rabies, which can be spread without traumatic exposure. Because of its rarity in developed countries, rabies encephalitis has been seldom studied with modern imaging techniques. SETTING: University-based teaching hospital. PATIENT: A case of pathologically confirmed rabies encephalitis is presented. diagnosis of rabies was made by seroconversion testing while the patient was alive and was confirmed postmortem by the presence of rabies antigens and Negri bodies in the brain. The patient had 2 magnetic resonance studies done that showed dramatic abnormalities in the medulla and pons that correlated with features of the neurologic examination and hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities. RESULT: The patient had a fulminant encephalitic course that ended in death. CONCLUSION: Rabies is an uncommon cause of fatal encephalitis. Anatomic imaging studies such as computed tomographic and magnetic resonance scans have generally been negative in confirmed cases of rabies. We report a case of confirmed rabies with extensive brainstem and hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. Although these findings are nonspecific, they should raise the clinical suspicion of rabies in the setting of aggressive encephalitis of unclear cause, and appropriate diagnostic tests should be performed.
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ranking = 10
keywords = encephalitis
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3/40. Imaging findings in rabies encephalitis.

    SUMMARY: Rabies encephalitis is perhaps one of the few infectious diseases that command attention and fear not only from the layman but also from physicians. The unique mode of transmission, the virtually exclusive neurotransmission shown by the agent, and the complete hopelessness of the established disease sets rabies apart from other zoonoses transmitted to man. Rabies encephalitis is a fatal disease and its diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentations and findings. Hence, imaging in rabies is seldom done, and imaging findings in rabies encephalitis have rarely been described. We present the imaging findings in two confirmed cases of rabies encephalitis in which antemortem diagnosis was obtained by corneal impression smears showing the presence of viral antigens. The differential diagnosis of the imaging findings as well as the role and the relevance of imaging in the diagnosis of this disease are discussed. The current literature on the subject is also reviewed.
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ranking = 8
keywords = encephalitis
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4/40. Clinical case of rabies in bulgaria.

    The history of a six-year-old girl, hospitalised in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Medical University of Varna with diagnosed meningoencephalitis, obs. rabies, and epidemiological data of dog bite without adequate prophylaxis is presented. The clinical course was unusual: the symptoms of aero- and hydrophobia were not clearly demonstrated, choreic hyperkynesias, torsion seizures and high initial pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid were present. The pathological picture is described. Ethiological diagnosis was proven by immunofluorescence test of brain tissue.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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5/40. Human rabies--california, 2002.

    On March 31, 2002, a man aged 28 years residing in Glenn County, california, died from rabies encephalitis caused by a rabies virus variant associated with the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) (Figure). This report summarizes the investigation by the Glenn County Health Department (GCHD) and the california Department of health services (CDHS). persons who observe abnormal behavior in any wildlife species should contact animal control or animal rescue agencies immediately and should avoid approaching or handling these animals.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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6/40. Human rabies--tennessee, 2002.

    On August 31,2002, a boy aged 13 years residing in Franklin County, tennessee, died from rabies encephalitis caused by a rabies virus variant associated with silver-haired and eastern pipistrelle bats. This report summarizes the investigation by the tennessee Department of Health (TDH). persons should avoid direct contact with bats, other wildlife, and stray or ill domestic animals; however, if direct contact with bats has occurred, exposed persons should see their health-care provider, and the exposure should be reported to local public health officials.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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7/40. Human rabies--iowa, 2002.

    On September 28, 2002, a man aged 20 years residing in Linn County, iowa, died from rabies encephalitis caused by infection with a variant of rabies virus associated with silver-haired (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus) bats. This is the first case of human rabies in iowa since 1951. This report summarizes the investigation of the case by the Linn County and iowa public health departments. Bats found in living quarters should be submitted to local public health laboratories for rabies testing.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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8/40. Fatal human rabies caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2a infection in scotland.

    We wish to report the first recorded case of indigenous human rabies caused by a bat bite in the United Kingdom in 100 years. This instructive case report highlights a number of key lessons: first, bites from insectivorous bats indiginous to the United Kingdom can cause rabies in humans; second, rabies immunization is essential for bat-handlers, and postexposure treatment for rabies is essential for patients bitten by bats; third, patients able to give a history who present with acute flaccid paralysis and/or presumptive viral encephalitis should be asked if they have been bitten by bats, irrespective of travel history, or this history should be obtained from family or friends; fourth, antemortem diagnosis of bat rabies (EBLV type 2a infection) in humans is possible using RT-PCR.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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9/40. Case report: isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2a from a fatal human case of rabies encephalitis.

    A 55-year-old bat conservationist was admitted to Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, scotland, on November 11, 2002, with an acute haematemesis. He gave a 5-day history of pain and paraesthesia in the left arm, followed by increasing weakness of his limbs with evidence of an evolving encephalitis with cerebellar involvement. The patient had never been vaccinated against rabies and did not receive postexposure treatment. Using a hemi-nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), saliva samples taken intravitam from different dates proved positive for rabies. A 400-bp region of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced for confirmation and identified a strain of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 2a. The diagnosis was confirmed using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and by RT-PCR on three brain samples (cerebellum, medulla, and hippocampus) taken at autopsy. In addition, a mouse inoculation test (MIT) was performed. Between 13 and 17 days postinfection, clinical signs of a rabies-like illness had developed in all five inoculated mice. brain smears from each infected animal were positive by the FAT and viable virus was isolated. This fatal incident is only the second confirmed case of an EBLV type-2 infection in a human after exposure to bats.
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ranking = 5
keywords = encephalitis
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10/40. Imported human rabies--france, 1992.

    Wildlife rabies has been enzootic in france since 1968; however, 13 of the 14 human cases in france were imported, and one was in a person infected through a corneal transplant (1). On May 9, 1992, a 3-year-old boy who resided in algeria died from rabies encephalitis in paris. This report summarizes the investigation of this case by the Pasteur Institute.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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