Cases reported "Radiation Injuries"

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1/22. Increased risk of erythema multiforme major with combination anticonvulsant and radiation therapies.

    erythema multiforme major (EMM; stevens-johnson syndrome) is a cutaneous disorder associated with a wide variety of factors including ingestion of drugs such as phenytoin and exposure to intracranial radiation therapy. Based on observations of a 47-year-old black man with brain metastases who developed EMM after combined phenytoin and radiation therapy, we conducted a medline literature search for articles on similar cases from 1966 to the present. Twenty cases were identified that support the hypothesis that EMM is associated with combined phenytoin and radiation therapy. The reaction, or its severity, has no relationship to the phenytoin or radiation therapy dosage, or to the histologic type of brain tumor. Also, EMM has no apparent age or gender predisposition in association with phenytoin-radiation therapy. Thus this is a clinical phenomenon that occurs with unusual frequency in patients with brain tumor who undergo radiation therapy while taking phenytoin. phenytoin and other anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital and carbamazepine induce cytochrome P450 3A and produce oxidative reactive intermediates that may be implicated in hypersensitivity reactions such as EMM. Both carbamazepine and barbiturates have shown cross-sensitivity with phenytoin; furthermore, a case of EMM in a patient receiving carbamazepine and whole brain radiation therapy has been reported. As carbamazepine, valproate, and barbiturates have been associated with EMM, gabapentin may be considered as alternative anticonvulsant therapy when appropriate.
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2/22. Neurological abnormalities associated with mobile phone use.

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp after mobile phone use have been previously reported but the pathological basis of these symptoms has been unclear. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after prolonged use of a mobile phone. He had permanent unilateral dysaesthesiae of the scalp, slight loss of sensation, and abnormalities on current perception threshold testing of cervical and trigeminal nerves. A neurologist found no other disease. The implications regarding health effects of mobile phones and radio-frequency radiation is discussed.
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3/22. Moyamoya syndrome after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    A 9-year-old boy presented with an episode of syncope, and MR imaging revealed bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis with moyamoya vessel formation. He had had prophylactic cranial irradiation at a total dose of 24 Gy for the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia at the age of 4. Following this, he was in a complete state of remission for 6 years. During an observation period of a year after the onset of syncope, MR imaging showed development of multiple ischemic lesions in both hemispheres. He developed a transient ischemic attack of mild motor weakness in his arm and an indirect anastomosis was performed on the severely affected side at the age of 10. Radiation-induced vasculopathies are known to be associated with primary diseases of intracranial tumors, but the frequency is unclear. Ours is the third case in whom prophylactic cranial irradiation for a hematological disorder might have induced cerebral vasculopathies.
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4/22. Radiation necrosis and brain edema association with CyberKnife treatment.

    The CyberKnife (CK) is a frameless and image guided robotic controlled instrument for stereotactic irradiation. The authors studied CK treatment of glioma and glioblastoma, and analyzed frequency and risk factors of radiation necrosis. Of 61 patients with glioma and glioblastoma treated with CyberKnife, four patients showed symptomatic radiation necrosis. All of these patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy, varying from 3 to 6 fractions without previous radiation therapy. Two patients required necrotomy through craniotomy. Two patients were treated conservatively. Our four patients with radiation necrosis were not specific in terms of tumor volume and dose delivery. glioma cells invade the normal brain tissue and over-radiation to this intermingling area is one of the risk factors for injury to normal endothelial cells. The homogeneity of the maximum dose area is an important factor to reduce over radiation to the normal brain parenchyma. The dose volume effect has been discussed in terms of risk factor; however, the number of fractions and dose per fraction should be considered to avoid radiation necrosis. We consider that conformal treatment with inverse algorism, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and precise anatomic targeting reduce the risk of radiation necrosis.
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5/22. The persistence of chromosome translocations in a radiation worker accidentally exposed to tritium.

    The chromosome translocation frequency in lymphocytes of an individual accidentally exposed to tritium six years previously was measured using chromosome painting. Comparisons with results from cytogenetic studies shortly after the accident indicate that the translocation frequency has remained unaltered in this individual for six years.
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6/22. Synchronous solitary metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder to the testis.

    Primary tumors known to metastasize to the testis, in order of decreasing frequency, are prostate, lung, gastrointestinal tract, melanoma, and kidney tumors. Metastasis from bladder cancer to the testis is extremely rare, occurs with advanced and metastatic disease, and is usually a finding at autopsy. We report a rare, and probably the first, case of solitary and synchronous metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder to the testis, discovered on the preoperative workup. An incidentally discovered testicular mass in a man with high-grade, invasive bladder cancer should be considered a metastatic lesion until proven otherwise.
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7/22. Misdiagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma.

    OBJECT: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ON) is a rare neoplasm arising from the olfactory epithelium and found in the upper nasal cavity. The authors studied the frequency with which ON is misdiagnosed with other tumors of the paranasal sinuses such as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), pituitary adenoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC). Based on the belief that misdiagnosis commonly occurs, they emphasized the importance of establishing the correct diagnosis, because the treatment regimens and prognosis of these tumor types are often significantly different. methods: Twelve consecutive patients in whom ON was diagnosed were referred to the Department of neurosurgery at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between January 1998 and March 2000. Demographic data were collected, physical findings and mode of treatments were documented, and neuroimaging studies were assessed. Pathologists at the authors' institute reviewed the histological specimens. Only in two of 12 patients was the diagnosis of ON confirmed. Lesions in 10 patients were misdiagnosed; there were two cases of melanoma, three cases of NEC, three cases of pituitary adenoma, and two cases of SNUC. Eight of 10 patients in whom lesions were misdiagnosed required significant alteration in the initially proposed treatment plan. CONCLUSIONS: Neurosurgeons should be acutely aware of the variety of neoplasms that occur in the paranasal region. The correct diagnosis should be ensured before initiating treatment to provide the optimum therapy and spare the patients from needless and potentially toxic treatment.
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8/22. Control of persistent vesical bleeding due to radiation cystitis by intravesical application of 15 (S) 15-methyl prostaglandin F2-alpha.

    A 45 year old female who received radiotherapy for stage II-B uterine cervical cancer four and half years ago, presented with persistent hematuria due to radiation cystitis. 15 (S)-15-methyl prostaglandin F2-alpha (1 mg in 100 ml of normal saline) was instilled into the bladder daily for two days. The severity of bleeding decreased considerably. However, significant hematuria recurred 19 days later which continued despite bladder irrigation with normal saline. 1 mg of 15 (S) 15-Me PGF2 alpha mixed with hydroxyethyl cellulose gel to a volume of 10 ml was then instilled into the urinary bladder daily for three days and macroscopic hematuria ceased. Urinary frequency and urgency were the side effects which lasted for ten days. There has been no recurrence of macroscopic hematuria during the five months follow-up. In conclusion, 15 (S) 15-Me PGF2-alpha may be administered intravesically to control moderate hematuria due to radiation cystitis.
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9/22. Analysis of the histopathology of radiation myelopathy.

    An analysis of published histopathology reports of patients with radiation myelopathy was performed. Radiation lesions in the spinal cord were classified as primarily white matter parenchymal lesions (type 1), primarily vascular lesions (type 2), or a combination of vascular and white matter lesions (type 3). The presence or absence of a mononuclear inflammatory reaction was also noted. Type 1 and type 3 lesions had comparable latent periods, both significantly shorter than those observed for type 2 lesions. The anatomical level of the irradiation did not appear to influence the type of lesion. Inflammatory reaction was observed with greater frequency in type 3 lesions. For all types of lesions, the average latent periods in patients with inflammatory reactions were shorter than in those without inflammation. In the cases in which disease status was evaluated, 70% of the patients were free of disease or had no evidence of recurrence at autopsy.
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10/22. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of osteoradionecrosis: a review of its use and efficacy.

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is an established technology that is proving to be effective in the treatment of osteoradionecrosis. However, the studies that have shown this treatment modality to be effective have not established the optimum pressures, times of exposure, and frequency and number of treatment necessary for healing. In addition, most of the studies used HBO as an adjunctive treatment in the management of refractory osteoradionecrosis. The efficacy of HBO as a primary treatment modality has not as yet been established. Strictly controlled clinical trials are necessary for identification of patients who are likely to respond to HBO without aggressive surgery, to delineate a timetable for treatment of patients with HBO, and to coordinate surgery with HBO to resolve osteoradionecrosis when a significant amount of bone loss is involved.
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