Cases reported "Radiation Injuries"

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1/946. Acute transient radiation hepatitis following whole abdominal irradiation.

    Sporadic cases or radiation hepatitis have been reported following doses above 3500 rad delivered in 3-4 weeks to the liver. The authors report their experience of radiation hepatitis in two out of 117 consecutive lymphoma cases treated with total abdominal irradiation. These two patients developed clinically overt manifestations which lasted for a short period of time and fully recovered. The dose delivered to the whole liver was 3000 rad in six weeks, but in one an additional 1000 rad in five fractions were delivered to the left lobe in an attempt to boost the dose to the central axis lymphatic system up to 4000 rad. The low incidence of radiation hepatitis and its reversible course, when 3000 rad in six weeks are delivered to the whole liver, is emphasised.
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2/946. Increased risk of erythema multiforme major with combination anticonvulsant and radiation therapies.

    erythema multiforme major (EMM; stevens-johnson syndrome) is a cutaneous disorder associated with a wide variety of factors including ingestion of drugs such as phenytoin and exposure to intracranial radiation therapy. Based on observations of a 47-year-old black man with brain metastases who developed EMM after combined phenytoin and radiation therapy, we conducted a medline literature search for articles on similar cases from 1966 to the present. Twenty cases were identified that support the hypothesis that EMM is associated with combined phenytoin and radiation therapy. The reaction, or its severity, has no relationship to the phenytoin or radiation therapy dosage, or to the histologic type of brain tumor. Also, EMM has no apparent age or gender predisposition in association with phenytoin-radiation therapy. Thus this is a clinical phenomenon that occurs with unusual frequency in patients with brain tumor who undergo radiation therapy while taking phenytoin. phenytoin and other anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital and carbamazepine induce cytochrome P450 3A and produce oxidative reactive intermediates that may be implicated in hypersensitivity reactions such as EMM. Both carbamazepine and barbiturates have shown cross-sensitivity with phenytoin; furthermore, a case of EMM in a patient receiving carbamazepine and whole brain radiation therapy has been reported. As carbamazepine, valproate, and barbiturates have been associated with EMM, gabapentin may be considered as alternative anticonvulsant therapy when appropriate.
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3/946. Cerebral radionecrosis following the treatment of parotid tumours: a case report and review of the literature.

    radiotherapy is an accepted part of the treatment of malignant tumours of the parotid gland. The use of radiotherapy in benign parotid tumours, where spillage of tumour cells has occurred at operation, is more controversial. radiotherapy to the parotid bed is not without morbidity. Complications may arise as a result of radiation damage to neighbouring structures and there is also potential to induce malignant disease. A patient, whose postoperative radiotherapy following resection of a pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma was complicated by cerebral necrosis, is discussed. The literature pertaining to morbidity of radiotherapy for parotid tumours is reviewed.
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4/946. Kleine-Levin and Munchausen syndromes in a patient with recurrent acromegaly.

    Hypothalamic disease often affects the patients' personality and this also applies to pituitary tumors with suprasellar extension. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of recurrent acromegaly, treated with three transphenoidal operations, single field radiation therapy and bromocriptine/octreotide administration. During the course of follow-up she presented with self-inflicted anemia and kleine-levin syndrome (hypersomnia, hyperphagia and hypersexuality). Furthermore, she developed post-radiation necrosis within the right temporal lobe. Whether her neurological and personality disorders result - at least partially - from the acromegaly or the temporal lobe necrosis remains unclear.
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5/946. Use of polyglactin 910 mesh (Vicryl) in pelvic oncologic surgery.

    Various synthetic materials have been shown to be useful surgical adjuncts in shielding the small intestine from pelvic radiation or in creating a new pelvic floor after major radical resections. Promising preliminary results with a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh in preventing radiation enteropathy prompted the authors to evaluate its clinical usefulness in reconstruction of the pelvic floor. Use of this mesh in pelvic exenterations (five total, one posterior) for advanced or recurrent gynecologic malignancies was associated with one enteroperineal fistula but no pelvic infection. In comparison with other pelvic reconstruction devices, this absorbable mesh significantly reduced intestinal morbidities in pelvic exenterations. This procedure appears to be feasible, reproducible, and safe, especially in patients who have undergone previous irradiation or those with an unsuitable omentum.
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6/946. Cerebral "radiation necrosis": vascular and glial features.

    Glial and vascular abnormalities in brain, simulating intracranial neoplasia, are described in a patient who received radiation to the pituitary region for treatment of an adenoma, 13 months before death. In addition to the expected changes of cerebral radionecrosis, four interesting features are cited: 1. Diffuse hyperplasia of capillaries in the cerebral cortex with marked endothelial hypertrophy; 2. abundant, large multipolar bizarre cells in the perivascular connective tissues; 3. focal astrocytic proliferation with many cells resembling either Alzheimer type I astrocytes or neoplastic cells, and 4. radiation changes in the non-irradiated brain.
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7/946. Directional coronary atherectomy for the diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced coronary artery stenosis.

    While radiation therapy has been known to cause myocardial and pericardial damage, its role in accentuating coronary artery disease in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors has been controversial. As younger patients with treatable cancers are being treated with mediastinal radiation, coronary artery disease as a cause for severe chest pain should be entertained as a possible diagnosis. We describe a 25-year-old male who presented with an inferior wall myocardial infarction 6 years after receiving mediastinal radiation and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. He was subsequently treated by directional atherectomy to a 95% lesion in the right coronary artery. Histological examination of the atherectomy specimen revealed evidence of radiation-induced endothelial damage that had resulted in plaque formation and subsequent ischemia. Possible mechanisms for radiation-induced coronary artery disease and treatment options are discussed.
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8/946. A simple reconstructive procedure for radiation-induced necrosis of the external auditory canal.

    Localized necrosis of the bone, cartilage, and soft tissue of the external auditory canal is an uncommon side effect of radiotherapy to the parotid region. Five patients developed late onset skin necrosis of a quadrant of the ear canal secondary to an underlying osteoradionecrosis of the tympanic ring. We report a one-stage procedure to excise the necrotic tissue and replace it with a local rotational flap derived from the post-auricular skin. Otological side effects of radiotherapy are discussed.
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9/946. radiation induced liver injury detected by particulate reticuloendothelial contrast agent.

    radiation induced liver injury detected by a particulate reticuloendothelial MR contrast agent is described in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. The irradiated hepatic parenchyma failed to darken after ferumoxide administration. This finding suggests that detection of metastatic disease after ferumoxide contrast agents may be impaired in patients who have previously received upper abdominal radiation treatment.
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10/946. dementia following treatment of brain tumors with radiotherapy administered alone or in combination with nitrosourea-based chemotherapy: a clinical and pathological study.

    A retrospective clinical and pathological study of 4 patients who developed the syndrome of radiation induced dementia was performed. All patients fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a history of supratentorial irradiation; (2) no evidence of symptomatic recurrent tumor; (3) no other cause of progressive cerebral dysfunction and dementia. The clinical picture consisted of a progressive "subcortical" dementia occurring 3-12 months after a course of cerebral radiotherapy. Examination revealed early bilateral corticospinal tract involvement in all patients and dopa-resistant Parkinsonian syndrome in two. On CT scan and MRI of the brain, the main features consisted of progressive enlargement of the ventricles associated with a diffuse hypodensity/hyperintensity of the white matter best seen on T2 weighted images on MRI. The course was progressive over 8-48 months in 3 patients while one patient had stabilization of his condition for about 28 years. Treatment with corticosteroids or shunting did not produce sustained improvement and all patients eventually died. Pathological examination revealed diffuse white matter pallor with sparing of the arcuate fibers in all patients. Despite a common pattern on gross examination, microscopic studies revealed a variety of lesions that took two basic forms: (1) a diffuse axonal and myelin loss in the white matter associated with tissue necrosis, particularly multiple small foci of necrosis disseminated in the white matter which appeared different from the usual "radionecrosis"; (2) diffuse spongiosis of the white matter characterized by the presence of vacuoles that displaced the normally-stained myelin sheets and axons. Despite a rather stereotyped clinical and radiological course, the pathological substratum of radiation-induced dementia is not uniform. Whether the different types of white matter lesions represent the spectrum of a single pathological process or indicate that the pathogenesis of this syndrome is multifactorial with different target cells, remains to be seen.
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