Cases reported "Radiation Injuries"

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1/383. Directional coronary atherectomy for the diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced coronary artery stenosis.

    While radiation therapy has been known to cause myocardial and pericardial damage, its role in accentuating coronary artery disease in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors has been controversial. As younger patients with treatable cancers are being treated with mediastinal radiation, coronary artery disease as a cause for severe chest pain should be entertained as a possible diagnosis. We describe a 25-year-old male who presented with an inferior wall myocardial infarction 6 years after receiving mediastinal radiation and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. He was subsequently treated by directional atherectomy to a 95% lesion in the right coronary artery. Histological examination of the atherectomy specimen revealed evidence of radiation-induced endothelial damage that had resulted in plaque formation and subsequent ischemia. Possible mechanisms for radiation-induced coronary artery disease and treatment options are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = radiation-induced, cancer
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2/383. A simple reconstructive procedure for radiation-induced necrosis of the external auditory canal.

    Localized necrosis of the bone, cartilage, and soft tissue of the external auditory canal is an uncommon side effect of radiotherapy to the parotid region. Five patients developed late onset skin necrosis of a quadrant of the ear canal secondary to an underlying osteoradionecrosis of the tympanic ring. We report a one-stage procedure to excise the necrotic tissue and replace it with a local rotational flap derived from the post-auricular skin. Otological side effects of radiotherapy are discussed.
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ranking = 0.66664485434447
keywords = radiation-induced
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3/383. radiation induced liver injury detected by particulate reticuloendothelial contrast agent.

    radiation induced liver injury detected by a particulate reticuloendothelial MR contrast agent is described in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. The irradiated hepatic parenchyma failed to darken after ferumoxide administration. This finding suggests that detection of metastatic disease after ferumoxide contrast agents may be impaired in patients who have previously received upper abdominal radiation treatment.
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ranking = 3.2718483300193E-5
keywords = cancer
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4/383. dementia following treatment of brain tumors with radiotherapy administered alone or in combination with nitrosourea-based chemotherapy: a clinical and pathological study.

    A retrospective clinical and pathological study of 4 patients who developed the syndrome of radiation induced dementia was performed. All patients fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a history of supratentorial irradiation; (2) no evidence of symptomatic recurrent tumor; (3) no other cause of progressive cerebral dysfunction and dementia. The clinical picture consisted of a progressive "subcortical" dementia occurring 3-12 months after a course of cerebral radiotherapy. Examination revealed early bilateral corticospinal tract involvement in all patients and dopa-resistant Parkinsonian syndrome in two. On CT scan and MRI of the brain, the main features consisted of progressive enlargement of the ventricles associated with a diffuse hypodensity/hyperintensity of the white matter best seen on T2 weighted images on MRI. The course was progressive over 8-48 months in 3 patients while one patient had stabilization of his condition for about 28 years. Treatment with corticosteroids or shunting did not produce sustained improvement and all patients eventually died. Pathological examination revealed diffuse white matter pallor with sparing of the arcuate fibers in all patients. Despite a common pattern on gross examination, microscopic studies revealed a variety of lesions that took two basic forms: (1) a diffuse axonal and myelin loss in the white matter associated with tissue necrosis, particularly multiple small foci of necrosis disseminated in the white matter which appeared different from the usual "radionecrosis"; (2) diffuse spongiosis of the white matter characterized by the presence of vacuoles that displaced the normally-stained myelin sheets and axons. Despite a rather stereotyped clinical and radiological course, the pathological substratum of radiation-induced dementia is not uniform. Whether the different types of white matter lesions represent the spectrum of a single pathological process or indicate that the pathogenesis of this syndrome is multifactorial with different target cells, remains to be seen.
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ranking = 0.16666121358612
keywords = radiation-induced
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5/383. radiation-induced localized scleroderma in breast cancer patients.

    radiation-induced scleroderma in breast cancer patients appears to occur in approximately one out of every 500 patients. We report four cases that developed within 3 months of conservative breast surgery and postoperative radiation treatment. The reaction was contained entirely within the treatment field and demonstrated the typical features of this condition where the breast becomes erythematous, violaceous, indurated, retracted, and progressively pigmented. The breast tends to soften and become more comfortable over 1-4 years; however, significant induration, retraction and pigmentary changes remain. There appears to be no predictive factors. radiation-induced scleroderma must be differentiated from cellulitis and recurrent breast cancer.
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ranking = 0.00019631089980116
keywords = cancer
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6/383. Mediastinal irradiation: A risk factor for atherosclerosis of the internal thoracic arteries.

    Previous radiotherapy to the thorax is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. patients with radiation-induced atherosclerosis tend to be young and frequently have lesions involving the coronary ostia and left anterior descending artery. Bypass is often the most suitable method of revascularization, and given the young age of the patient, arterial conduits would be considered superior to vein grafts. However, the internal thoracic arteries can lie within the radiation field and may not be free of atherosclerosis. A 40-year-old man who required coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel coronary artery disease 11 years following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma is reported. Preoperative angiography showed that the right internal thoracic artery had significant atherosclerosis and was unsuitable as a conduit.
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ranking = 0.16666121358612
keywords = radiation-induced
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7/383. Vasospastic angina likely related to cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation for lung cancer.

    Vasospastic angina is rarely observed during cancer treatment. The present report describes two males with lung cancer, aged 73 and 61, who developed vasospastic angina during combination treatment of cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation. As both patients have smoked and their ages are typical for patients with coronary artery disease, such events may be incidental. However, oncologists should be aware of the possible development of myocardial ischemia during or following administration of antineoplastic agents, especially in elderly patients with pre-existing coronary risk factors or a history of thoracic radiotherapy.
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ranking = 0.00019631089980116
keywords = cancer
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8/383. Neuromyotonia of the abducens nerve after hypophysectomy and radiation.

    The clinical signs of the rarely encountered ocular neuromyotonia consist of transient involuntary tonic contraction and delayed relaxation of single or multiple extraocular muscles, resulting in episodic diplopia. With a mean time delay of 3.5 years, this motility disorder frequently follows tumor excision or adjuvant radiation near the skull base. Ocular neuromyotonia may reflect inappropriate discharge from oculomotor neurons with unstable cell membranes because of segmental demyelinization by tumor compression and radiation-induced microangiopathy. In the present paper, the authors present the case of a 53-year-old patient with a history of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, who underwent strabismus surgery for abducens palsy.
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ranking = 0.16666121358612
keywords = radiation-induced
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9/383. Delayed radionecrosis of the larynx.

    radiation has been used to treat carcinoma of the larynx for more than 70 years. Radionecrosis is a well-known complication of this modality when treating head and neck neoplasms. It has been described in the temporal bone, midface, mandible, and larynx. Laryngeal radionecrosis is manifested clinically by dysphagia, odynophagia, respiratory obstruction, hoarseness, and recurrent aspiration. The vast majority of patients who develop laryngeal radionecrosis present with these symptoms within 1 year of treatment; however, delayed presentations have been reported up to 25 years after radiotherapy. We present, in a retrospective case analysis, an unusual case of laryngeal radionecrosis in a patient who presented more than 50 years after treatment with radiotherapy for carcinoma of the larynx. The cases of delayed laryngeal necrosis in the literature are presented. This represents the longest interval between treatment and presentation in the literature. The details of the presentation, clinical course, and diagnostic imaging are discussed. The pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment options for this rare complication are reviewed. Early stage (Chandler I and II) laryngeal radionecrosis may be treated conservatively and often observed. Late stage (Chandler III and IV) cases are medical emergencies, occasionally resulting in significant morbidity or mortality. Aggressive diagnostic and treatment measures must be implemented in these cases to improve outcome. This case represents the longest interval between initial treatment and presentation of osteoradionecrosis in the literature. A structured diagnostic and therapeutic approach is essential in managing this difficult problem.
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ranking = 1.5329514363694E-6
keywords = neoplasm
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10/383. breast cancer invasion into the chest wall with resection and reconstruction.

    Despite the advent of limited resections and radiation therapy in the treatment of breast cancer, a substantial number of women experience recurrence or persistent disease that invades the skin, soft tissues, and musculoskeletal layers of the chest wall. This problem, which can compromise local control of the tumor, can also involve pleura, lung tissue, and mediastinal structures. This article will cover some of the pertinent clinical decisions related to these lesions, their prognosis, and management by chest wall resection and reconstruction.
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ranking = 0.00016359241650097
keywords = cancer
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