Cases reported "Radiation Injuries"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/48. Pulsed dye laser treatment of telangiectasia after radiotherapy for breast carcinoma.

    Telangiectasia formed following exposure to X-ray irradiation have been reported to respond well to the pulsed dye laser system. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman with extensive post-radiotherapy skin telangiectasia of the chest wall and axilla who was treated with six sessions of pulsed dye laser treatment, with a considerable improvement in appearance. We recommend the pulsed dye laser as an option in the treatment of post-radiotherapy telangiectasia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/48. Radiation-induced heart disease.

    A 45-year old woman underwent a radical mastectomy in 1965 for carcinoma of the left breast with metastasis in the left axillar lymph nodes. Fifty per cent of the heart received 4,000 rads during post-operative x-ray therapy. Patient developed radiopneumonia and symptoms of acute pericarditis in 1967. Constrictive pericarditis developed gradually from 1972 on. A pericardiectomy was performed in June 1974 and a thickened pericardium could be removed. light and electron microscopic examination of a surgical biopsy of the left ventricular epi-myocardium revealed epicardial fibrosis, interstitial fibrosis of the myocardium and perivascular fibrosis. The diagnosis of post-radiation pericarditis was made. The myocardial involvement may be responsible for the subsequent clinical course.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/48. Radiation injury from x-ray exposure during brachytherapy localization.

    Two patients developed skin ulcers secondary to high doses of diagnostic-energy x rays received during localization procedures as part of brachytherapy treatments. Both were morbidly obese and diabetic. The obesity led to the delivery of estimated skin doses of 83 Gy in one case and 29 Gy in the other in attempts to produce readable images on localization radiographs. This report discusses the factors leading to the injuries, the progression of the injuries over time, and the variables involved in the localization procedures with the aim of preventing future mishaps. The greatest contribution to the large skin dose was the need, with the equipment available, to use multiple exposures to produce a single film, because of the effect of the resultant reciprocity failure.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5.0723603993314
keywords = ray, x-ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/48. Radiological findings of accidental radiation injury of the fingers: a case report.

    This case report describes the medical follow-up of a 46-y-old (at the time of exposure) man who in 1971 accidentally exposed the fingers of his right hand to gamma-ray radiation from an iridium source that was used for nondestructive testing [estimated radiation dose: 26 Gy to 90 Gy (2,600 rad to 9,000 rad)]. No prominent acute injury was detected except for leukocytopenia (800 mm(-3)) and thrombocytopenia (15,000 mm(-3)). Three years later, the first, second, and third fingers presented repeated infection and started to develop contracture. Twenty-two years after exposure, he underwent amputation of the first and second fingers, and a toe graft was done. Radiological examinations prior to and following the operation revealed atrophic change of the finger bones and arterial injuries. Angiographic findings coincided with the region and extent of radiation injury of the fingers, which indicates that arterial damage is involved in the development of this chronic disorder.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/48. Presentation and revascularization outcomes in patients with radiation-induced renal artery stenosis.

    This study analyzed the initial presentation and revascularization outcomes of patients with radiation-induced renal artery stenosis, a rare complication of therapeutic irradiation. Of 11 patients with renal artery stenosis after irradiation, 7 patients fulfilled the following criteria: normotension before irradiation, radiation dose greater than 25 grays delivered to the renal arteries, associated perirenal radiation-induced lesions, and absence of arterial disease outside the radiation field. The median age at irradiation was 30 years, and the median local irradiation dose was 40 grays. The median time from irradiation to referral was 13 years. All patients were hypertensive at referral, with a median blood pressure (BP) of 171/102 mm Hg and median treatment score of two. The median glomerular filtration rate was 67 mL/min. Two patients had bilateral stenoses and 1 patient had stenosis affecting a single kidney. Stenoses were proximal in 6 patients and truncal in 1 patient, and all had the appearance of atherosclerotic stenosis. Percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty (PTRA) was successful in 5 patients, but required multiple insufflations. PTRA failed in 1 patient, who subsequently underwent an aortorenal bypass. After a median follow-up of 36 months, 2 patients had died of noncardiovascular causes and 4 patients remained hypertensive, with a median BP of 136/85 mm Hg and median treatment score of two. No restenosis occurred, but aneurysms developed at the site of angioplasty in 1 patient. If hypertension occurs even decades after irradiation, a radiation-induced renal artery stenosis should be sought in patients who have undergone abdominal irradiation.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/48. Incidental retinal phototoxicity associated with ingestion of photosensitizing drugs.

    BACKGROUND: to report on the possible correlation between incident retinal phototoxicity and the use of photosensitizing drugs. methods: four patients were examined because of scotomas and visual loss after an incidental exposure to a strong light source. One patient (two eyes) was exposed to standard camera flash; one patient (one eye) had a brief exposure to welding light; one patient (two eyes) underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsifications with intraocular lens implantation. The fourth patient had a severe retinal phototoxicity following a secondary intraocular lens implantation. All four patients underwent a thorough assessment including history of systemic drug use. These patients had ophthalmologic evaluation including: best corrected visual acuity (ETDRS charts), fundus examination, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies and were followed for 1 year. RESULTS: on presentation, the mean visual acuity was 7.5/20 (range: 20/400-20/20). Fundus examination disclosed yellow-gray sub-retinal lesions in all affected eyes. Early phase fluorescein angiography showed one or multiple hypofluorescent spots surrounded by a halo of hyperfluorescent window defect. In the late phase, some of these spots leaked the fluorescein dye. indocyanine green angiography demonstrated hypofluorescent spots throughout with ill-defined borders of hyperfluorescence observed during the late stages. The common finding in these four patients was the fact that they were all taking one or more photosensitizing drugs (hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, allopurinol, and benzodiazepines). Three of the patients had a full visual recovery a few months after the phototoxicity. The fourth patient remained with a visual acuity of 20/60 12 months after the light exposure. Despite the visual recovery, non-homogeneous retinal pigment epithelial disturbances persisted in all affected eyes. CONCLUSION: phototoxicity following incidental light exposure may occur in patients taking drugs of photosensitizing potential. Therefore, the thorough history of systemic drug ingestion should be obtained if patients have exposure to strong light sources.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/48. Protecting patients by training physicians in fluoroscopic radiation management.

    During the past 15 years, developments in x-ray technologies have substantially enhanced the ability of practitioners to treat patients using fluoroscopically guided interventional techniques. However, many of these procedures require a greater use of fluoroscopy and serial imaging (cine). This has increased the potential for radiation-induced dermatitis, epilation, and severe radiation-induced burns to patients. It has also increased the potential for radiation injury and radiation-induced cancer in personnel. This work will describe a number of the cases that have appeared in the literature and current recommendations and credentialing requirements of various organizations whose members use fluoroscopy. Finally, a program for implementing training of physicians in radiation management as a means of reducing the risk of injury to patients and personnel is recommended.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.0180900998328
keywords = ray, x-ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/48. Initial symptoms of acute radiation syndrome in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at the uranium conversion plant in Tokai-mura (Tokai-village), Ibaraki Prefecture, japan. When the criticality occurred, three workers saw a "blue-white glow," and a radiation monitor alarm was sounded. They were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, and subsequently developed acute radiation syndrome (ARS). One worker reported vomiting within minutes and loss of consciousness for 10-20 seconds. This worker also had diarrhea an hour after the exposure. The other worker started to vomit almost an hour after the exposure. The three workers, including their supervisor, who had no symptoms at the time, were brought to the National Mito Hospital by ambulance. Because of the detection of gamma-rays from their body surface by preliminary surveys and decreased numbers of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, they were transferred to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), which has been designated as a hospital responsible for radiation emergencies. Dose estimations for the three workers were performed by prodromal symptoms, serial changes of lymphocyte numbers, chromosomal analysis, and 24Na activity. The results obtained from these methods were fairly consistent. Most of the data, such as the dose rate of radiation, its distribution, and the quality needed to evaluate the average dose, were not available when the decision for hematopoitic stem cell transplantation had to be made. Therefore, prodromal symptoms may be important in making decisions for therapeutic strategies, such as stem-cell transplantation in heavily exposed victims.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/48. Brief note and evaluation of acute-radiation syndrome and treatment of a Tokai-mura criticality accident patient.

    Patient A who was exposed to a critical dose of radiation developed skin lesions throughout the body surface, gastrointestinal disorder with massive diarrhea and prominent bleeding, which caused severe loss in body fluids. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to the deteriorated intestinal mucosa was considered to be one of the major causes of death, although infection did not develop, possibly because of SDD and aseptic intensive care, until terminal stages. Patient A ultimately developed respiratory and renal failure in addition to skin exudate and gastrointestinal bleeding, and died of multiple organ failure on the 83rd day after exposure. The extreme unevenness of the dose distribution and the neutron versus y-ray component made the clinical manifestation very complicated. Initially, the mean absorbed dose was calculated as 16-20 GyEq for Patient A, mainly based on neutron-activated 24Na in the blood. However, a very recent calculation showed that the absorbed skin dose was highest at the upper-right abdomen reaching 61.8 Gy (27.0 as neutron plus 34.8 Gy as y-ray). The dorsal side was calculated to have received one eighth of the value of the abdominal side, and much smaller neutron component. His absorbed-dose distribution throughout the body was very inhomogeneous because of the closeness of the standing point to the mixing tank. Despite prolonged survival because of intensive care with massive fluids and blood transfusion, peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, cultured skin-cell grafts, and the administration of cytokines for marrow, the patient was not saved. Restoration of the bone marrow function, prevention of skin fibrosis, radiation lung damage, and repair of gastrointestinal mucosa, and final recovery of the patient were elusive. Abundant personnel and resources were also a prerequisite to allow for the comprehensive and collective intensive care. A further understanding of the effects of high-dose radiation as well as the basic and clinical development of regeneration medicine are important issues for the future.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/48. High-dose fluoroscopy: the administrator's responsibilities.

    During the past 15 years, developments in x-ray technologies have substantially improved the ability of practitioners to treat patients using fluoroscopically guided interventional techniques. Many of these procedures require a greater use of fluoroscopy and serial imaging (cine). This has increased the potential for radiation-induced dermatitis, epilation and severe radiation-induced burns to patients. radiology administrators must realize that these high-dose procedures increase the risk for radiation injury and radiation-induced cancer in personnel as well as in patients. This article discusses particular clinical cases and describes positive, pro-active steps that practitioners and administrators can take to help prevent such injuries in their facilities. Unfortunately, with the exception of radiologists, a large proportion of physicians who use fluoroscopy have effectively no training or credentials in management of radiation or the biological effects associated with its use. In 1994, an FDA advisory warned that training of physicians for modern-day use of the fluoroscope was for the most part insufficient and needed to be expanded. Many prominent medical organizations such as the American College of cardiology (14) and the american heart association (15) have published strongly worded position papers agreeing that there is an urgent need for such training. The consensus is that "rubber-stamp" privileges (16,17) to perform fluoroscopic procedures should no longer be granted. At present, the JCAHO is considering the implementation of a statement regarding JCAHO standards and privileges for practitioners to use fluoroscopic x-ray equipment. Whether or not the JCAHO becomes involved, it is becoming increasingly clear that all practitioners who use fluoroscopic radiation should be required to complete focused training in radiation physics, radiation biology and radiation safety. Training should include the pertinent aspects of radiation management in the clinical setting so that these physicians will be able to acceptably control risks to patients and personnel. The task of securing these materials and lecturers and documenting everything may fall on the shoulders of the radiology administrator or radiation safety staff. Completion of an approved educational program (with appropriate testing) provides the evidence needed by the facility to approve the practitioner's qualifications. In summary, it will take a concerted effort on the part of professional medical organizations and regulatory agencies to insure that the wealth of preventative information now available is disseminated to and put to use by these physicians who may fail to fully appreciate the potential for imparting serious injury to their patients. Even one radiation injury caused by lack of education is unacceptable.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2.0361801996657
keywords = ray, x-ray
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Radiation Injuries'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.