Cases reported "Radiation Pneumonitis"

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1/24. radiation pneumonitis following multi-field radiation therapy.

    The mechanisms of radiation pneumonitis have not been established. In a study on multi-field radiation therapy for lung cancer, one patient developed severe radiation pneumonitis even though the target volume was small. Radiation therapy was performed at a dose of 75 Gy in 50 fractions over five weeks. High-density areas conforming to the radiation field were observed by high-resolution CT. They were observed in the irradiated volume at doses under 20 Gy in the contralateral lung as well as in the ipsilateral lung.
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2/24. The role of anti-epithelial cell antibodies in the pathogenesis of bilateral radiation pneumonitis caused by unilateral thoracic irradiation.

    Two cases of bilateral radiation pneumonitis associated with unilateral thoracic irradiation against lung cancer are described. Both patients died of respiratory failure and autopsy was performed. Histologically, bilateral diffuse alveolar damage was demonstrated in both cases, associated with marked organization of hyaline membrane in one case (case 1). In addition, numerous hyperplastic type II pneumocytes which strongly expressed cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19 were observed. In both patients' sera, antibodies against cytokeratin 8, 18 and 19 were demonstrated by a Western immunoblot. The possible association between autoantibodies to cytokeratins and diffuse alveolar damage observed in patients with bilateral radiation pneumonitis are discussed.
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ranking = 1.375
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3/24. fluorine-18 FDG dual-head gamma camera coincidence imaging of radiation pneumonitis.

    A 69-year-old man with inoperable stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the lung underwent a radical course of radiotherapy combined with platinum-based chemotherapy. fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging with a dual-head coincidence gamma camera system (Co-PET) diagnosed radiation pneumonitis 1 month after completion of radiotherapy, when the clinical and radiographic signs were atypical and more suggestive of carcinomatous lymphangitis. Treatment with oral steroids was begun based on FDG scan findings, with prompt clinical benefit as would be expected for radiation pneumonitis.
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4/24. Radiation enteritis: a rare complication of the transverse colon in uterine cancer.

    Radiation therapy is a powerful method for the control of cancer. The utilization of abdominal or pelvic radiation has been extended, and the incidence of radiation enteritis appears to be increasing. The majority of the induced lesions is in the distal ileum, sigmoid colon, or rectum. Reported here is an unusual case of radiation enteritis which caused a severe sequelae of stricture in the transverse colon as a long-term effect of therapeutic irradiation for uterine cancer, and required a surgical resection.
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5/24. Radiation-associated valvular heart disease in Hodgkin's disease is associated with characteristic thickening and fibrosis of the aortic-mitral curtain.

    Radiation-associated valvular dysfunction is characterized by variable aortic and mitral valve thickening. A review of three patients assessed echocardiographically revealed that radiation-associated valvular dysfunction after radiation treatment for Hodgkin's disease may be characterized by a unique and consistent pattern of thickening of the aortic and mitral valves involving the aortic-mitral curtain.
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6/24. Focal pulmonary uptake of gallium-67 due to radiation pneumonitis: the case for a misdiagnosis of Hodgkin's disease progression.

    gallium-67 scan is usually performed in patients with Hodgkin's disease and high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma for evaluation of disease status after treatment. We present a case of an asymptomatic woman in complete remission of Hodgkin's disease after treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy where a focal uptake of gallium-67 was discovered two months after finishing treatment. As classical radiation pneumonitis can appear one to three months after finishing radiotherapy and normally has an asymptomatic course, this possibility should be considered in these cases, especially when prior chemotherapy was administered.
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ranking = 0.625
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7/24. bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after tangential beam irradiation to the breast: discrimination from radiation pneumonitis.

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) secondary to tangential beam irradiation to the breast, which occurred seven months after the completion of radiotherapy. Although radiation pneumonitis is an alternative consideration, BOOP could be differentiated from it by its relatively late onset and extensive distribution, which did not respect the radiation field. This disease should always be kept in mind in patients with a history of tangential beam irradiation to the breast.
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8/24. Corticosteroid refractory radiation pneumonitis that remarkably responded to cyclosporin A.

    Radiation therapy is commonly used for the treatment of lung cancer. However, radiation pneumonitis frequently occurs as a complication of the radiation therapy. Although corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of radiation pneumonitis, they are not always effective. In this report, we used cyclosporin A in the treatment of a patient suffering from steroid-refractory radiation pneumonitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which cyclosporin A was successfully used in the treatment of radiation pneumonitis.
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ranking = 1.125
keywords = radiation
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9/24. "Drowned lung" following lobectomy and radiation therapy: a case report.

    Radiation therapy for locoregional control of NSCLC is controversial, and risk factors for developing radiation associated pneumopathies must be assessed before any patient undergoes adjuvant radiation therapy. radiotherapy for patients with early stage NSCLC may be associated with increased morbidity and decreased survival. As evidenced by our case, adjuvant radiation therapy for a patient with significant risk factors and early stage disease generated morbidity from the treatment itself. It contributed to development of a bronchopleural fistula and chronic empyema, and led to distortion and obstructing of the airway causing irreversible pulmonary consolidation ("drowned lung"). Further, the final pathology report showed clear margins, suggesting that there was no clear indication for radiation therapy. Although NSCLC, the potential risks cannot be overlooked and patients should be carefully evaluated before recommending postoperative therapy.
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10/24. Interstitial densities following radiotherapy.

    After admission on June 30, R.D. remained intubated, and he continued on i.v. steroids, heparin, and warfarin. Nutritional needs were met with a nasointestinal feeding tube and nutritional preparations. He was alert and oriented and communicated appropriately with family and staff via written notes. The patient and his wife wanted to try a ventilator for a period of time before considering a "No CPR" order. His chest wound continued to be open but was healing slowly. Over the next few days, R.D. became more hypoxic with increased respiratory effort and required sedation and assist-control ventilator settings. On July 1, he required more sedation to keep him comfortable, but remained alert and oriented and continued to communicate with his family. On July 3, he sat in a chair for 1.5 hours. On July 4, he developed a large right pneumothorax and a chest tube was placed. He continued to indicate that he was short of breath. The patient remained very anxious and was started on a propofol drip. Later that day, his wife had a discussion with the healthcare team; the decision was made not to resuscitate the patient. On July 5, R.D.'s agitation increased and he was started on additional propofol for sedation, vecuronium bromide to facilitate breathing, and lorazepam i.v. push for relaxation. R.D.'s oxygenation-ventilation status declined through the night. After a discussion between the family and the physician on July 6, life support was withdrawn, and R.D. died later that day. Some of the factors that may have led to R.D.'s radiation-induced pneumonitis include his prior history of smoking as well as his former occupation as a coal miner. He received 15 radiation treatments to his chest area. He also received chemotherapy, including the drug paclitaxel; this combination may have contributed to his radiation-induced pneumonitis. The pneumonitis led to his immunosuppressed condition. R.D.'s superior vena cava syndrome led to the formation of clots for which he received heparin and coumadin. He received steroids to reduce the inflammation from the mediastinoscopy site and in his lung tissues. All of these factors contributed to R.D.'s outcome.
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ranking = 0.375
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