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1/3. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium: report of two cases.

    Primary chylopericardium is an extremely rare disease. This report presents two cases of this disease, in a 47-year-old man and 21 -year-old woman. Both cases were given diagnosis of primary chylopericardium by chylous pericardial fluid examination and lymphangio-scintigraphy which demonstrated abnormal communication between the left thoracic duct and the pericardial cavity.
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2/3. Cecal volvulus: a rare cause of bowel obstruction in a pediatric patient diagnosed pre-operatively by conventional imaging studies.

    Cecal volvulus is an acute surgical condition that is extremely rare in children, with a mortality rate of up to 40%. The clinical symptoms are often non-specific, and pediatric patients frequently have neurological deficits with associated communication difficulties, making the clinical diagnosis extremely challenging. Conventional radiographic imaging studies play a key role in the prospective diagnosis in children. We report a rare case of cecal volvulus in a 12-year-old boy who was diagnosed pre-operatively by abdominal radiographs and a contrast enema.
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3/3. Spinal extradural meningeal cyst with spinal stenosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To present a rare pathology causing a common disease. SETTING: spine unit of the orthopaedic surgery department of a university hospital in berlin/germany. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old female with an intraspinal extradural arachnoid cyst of the lumbar spine presented with intermittent radiating lumbar pain. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a dorsal spinal extradural arachnoid cyst at L3/4. After wide laminotomy L3, operative cyst resection and stabilisation at L3/4 by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), major symptom relief occurred. CONCLUSION: Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts are a rare entity causing low back pain and intermittent radicular syndromes. They can be caused by arachnoid herniation through dural weak spots which are hereditary or occur after trauma. A ball-valve mechanism promotes growth. The main diagnostic tool for spinal extradural cysts is the MRI scan. Additionally, myelography is helpful to demonstrate fluid communication. Complete surgical removal of the cyst should be attempted to reduce risk of recurrence. If extensive decompression is needed for the surgical approach causing segmental instability, interbody fusion is recommended. The outcome depends on age, duration and degree of neurological damage.
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