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11/19. An unusual localization of thymoma.

    A 41-year-old man with myasthenia gravis was referred to our clinic to undergo a thymectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery. After physical examination of the thorax and evaluation by computed tomography, a mass lesion was noticed in the neck and thymectomy was performed by partial sternotomy combined with a cervical incision. The cervical thymoma was discontinuous with the thymus. thymoma in the neck has rarely been reported. In this case report we emphasize the possible presence of thymoma in the neck and the importance of neck evaluation in patients with myasthenia gravis.
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12/19. An unusual clinical presentation resembling superior vena cava syndrome post heart surgery.

    BACKGROUND: An unusual sequence of post operative events heralded by hemodynamic deterioration followed by dyspnea and rapidly progressive dilatation of superficial neck and facial veins, resembling a superior vena cava syndrome, two days post surgical resection of filamentous aortic valve masses, closure of a patent foramen ovale, and performance of a modified Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation in a patient that presented with transient neurologic findings is presented. CASE PRESENTATION: Although both clinical findings and hemodynamic derangements completely resolved following tricuspid valve repair aimed to correct the new onset severe tricuspid regurgitation noted post operatively; a clear mechanism was not readily obvious and diagnostic testing data somewhat conflictive. We present a careful retrospective examination of all clinical data and review possible clinical entities that could have been implicated in this particular case and recognize that transesophageal echocardiographic findings were most useful in identifying the best course of action. CONCLUSION: After reviewing all clinical data and despite the inconclusive nature of test results; the retrospective examination of transesophageal echocardiographic findings proved to be most useful in identifying the best course of action. We postulate that in our case, resolution of the suspected pulmonary embolism with anticoagulation and reestablishment of a normal right ventricular geometry with tricuspid valve repair worked in unison in restoring normal hemodynamics and resolving both dyspnea and venous dilatation.
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13/19. Follicular dendritic cell tumour of tonsil - is it an under-diagnosed entity?

    neoplasms of follicular dendritic cells are uncommon and while majority of them occur in lymph nodes, they are increasingly recognized at varied sites such as abdominal viscera. Tonsil is the most common extra nodal site for occurrence of FDCT in the head and neck region. We describe three cases of follicular dendritic cell tumour occurring in the tonsil.
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14/19. Hemimacroglossia caused by isolated plexiform neurofibroma: a case report.

    OBJECTIVES: The present case is a diffuse isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue that was not associated with neurofibromatosis that we treated with intraoral surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A case report. methods: We present a 5-year-old girl with isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue with infiltration of the tongue base and review treatment approaches for this very rare tumor. RESULTS: An intraoral approach appears to be a good alternative method that allows both an acceptable exposure for total excision and limited postoperative sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue is very rare. It causes a massive macroglossia that is progressive with advance of years and disturbs the patient's speech, occlusion, and tongue movements. Involvement of the tongue may be associated with infiltration into the deep structures of the neck by the tumor, thereby presenting considerable operative difficulties.
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15/19. Isolated malleus neck fracture.

    Isolated fracture of the malleus seems to be an extremely rare ossicular injury. All previously reported cases involved the handle of the malleus. This is the first reported case of fracture of the neck of the malleus. The diagnosis can easily be missed because the tympanic membrane remains intact. Furthermore, the history may not be suggestive. Surgical repair is particularly difficult.
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16/19. baroreflex failure: a rare complication of carotid paraganglioma surgery.

    Multiple head and neck paragangliomas are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with removal of bilateral carotid paragangliomas who subsequently developed baroreflex failure 1 month after surgery. The pathology and physiology of this presentation is extremely interesting because it exhibits the complex homeostatic mechanisms involved in the maintenance of steady-state blood pressure. Although rare, it is important to be aware of baroreflex failure and its variable course. Most postsurgical cases occur within days of surgery but, as this report demonstrates, hypertensive urgency can occur weeks to months after surgery; and if not recognized early, it can lead to disastrous postoperative complications such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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17/19. Angiomatoid variant of fibrous histiocytoma: a case report and review of literature.

    Fibrous histiocytomas by themselves are not very common in the head and neck region. Apart from considering the above fact, this report describes a unique and relatively rare variant of the neoplasm - the angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) which has a characteristic appearance and predilection for young individuals that occurred in the left lower border of the mandible in a 13-year-old girl. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a distinct fibrohistiocytic tumour of children and young adults that combines features of both fibrohistiocytic and vascular neoplasm. It is considered to be a tumour of intermediate malignancy because of its less aggressive course in contrast to the conventional malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The authors would like to stress upon the fact that clinicians should not overlook swellings that may not appear distinct visually and therefore consider it to be a part of normal anatomy, dismiss it as an anomaly with no significance, or treat it injudiciously, for ultimately it may prove to be a tumour that would require appropriate treatment and follow-up.
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18/19. Selenoprotein N muscular dystrophy: differential diagnosis for early-onset limited mobility of the spine.

    Early spinal rigidity is a nonspecific feature reported in diseases such as neuromuscular and central movement disorders. We present a male patient with rigid spine muscular dystrophy caused by newly identified compound heterozygote mutations of the selenoprotein N gene and discuss this disease as a possible differential diagnosis for early-onset reduced spine mobility. Rigid spine muscular dystrophy is a rare myopathy presenting in childhood with a typical combination of stable or slowly progressive mild to moderate muscle weakness, limitation in flexion of the spine, and progressive restrictive ventilatory disorder. The clinical features of our patient include early-onset rigidity of his spine, scoliosis, mild muscular weakness predominantly of neck and trunk flexors, and restrictive ventilatory disorder. biopsy of the biceps muscle revealed nonspecific myopathic changes, and molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of rigid spine muscular dystrophy. Thus, neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy must be considered in all patients presenting with early spinal rigidity, and genetic determination is a possible way to determine the diagnosis.
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19/19. Oncocytic carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    BACKGROUND: Oncocytic carcinoma is a rare tumor of major salivary glands. Despite being described 5 decades ago, not much is known about these rare tumors. Histochemical or electron microscopic confirmation of the oncocytic nature of the tumor cell is needed for differential diagnosis. The main treatment modality is surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. Malignant oncocytomas have the potential risk of developing distant metastases and demand long term follow-up after therapy. CASE REPORT: A 58-year old man presented with a recurrent mass in the left parotid gland with a prior diagnosis of monomorphic adenoma in the same localization which had been treated by tumor excision in July 2002. Left superficial parotidectomy followed by radiotherapy into tumor bed and upper neck were carried out in September 2004. To date, he has had no evidence of recurrence for 14 months. CONCLUSION: For an accurate approach in the management of patients, oncocytic adenocarcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of the parotid gland, most of which are benign.
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