Cases reported "Rectal Neoplasms"

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1/264. The effectiveness of chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil for recurrent small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of a 46-year-old-man with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) concomitant with large villous adenoma of the rectum, who underwent abdominoperineal resection with regional lymphnode dissection. The resected specimen was histologically found to contain a small lesion of NEC confined to the submucosa in the large adenoma. A computed tomography scan done 4 months postoperatively revealed recurrences in the liver, lymph nodes, and bone. Therefore, two cycles of sequential intravenous combined chemotherapy with standard doses of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were administered, after which the size of each tumor decreased remarkably. Nevertheless, the patient died 8 months after the operation. As there was a fair response of this tumor to the combined chemotherapy of cisplatin and 5-FU, this regimen against NEC of the colon and rectum should be given consideration.
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2/264. Synchronous and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review.

    Whilst synchronous adenocarcinoma of the stomach is well documented, metachronous primary disease is exceedingly rare. We report a man with a family history of colonic and gastric cancer, who underwent a resection of a Duke's C adenocarcinoma of the rectum, aged 56 years, and a proximal partial gastrectomy for synchronous stage 1 gastric adenocarcinomas of the lesser curve, aged 61 years. Nine years later, a metachronous gastric primary was discovered in the gastric remnant, necessitating total gastrectomy. Total gastrectomy is the operation of choice for synchronous gastric primaries as it ensures clearance and prevents metachronous growth. However, it may not be appropriate for all gastric cancer as operative morbidity and mortality are increased, and because synchronicity and metachronicity of gastric cancer are uncommon. Moreover, there are no consistent data to demonstrate a survival advantage for total compared with partial gastrectomy for operable gastric cancer. If, after partial gastrectomy, synchronous disease is detected in the resected specimen (as in this reported case), endoscopic surveillance for metachronous disease is advised, since this may be amenable to surgical cure.
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3/264. Successful transvaginal repair of a rectovaginal fistula developing after double-stapled anastomosis in low anterior resection: report of four cases.

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after low anterior resection for rectal cancer is difficult and the results are often unsatisfactory. Among 140 patients with rectal cancer who underwent low anterior resection with a double-stapled anastomosis at our hospital between 1986 and 1996, 4 (2.9%) developed RVF as a postoperative complication. The RVF developed gradually from 9 to 128 days after low anterior resection. We describe herein our technique of using a modified transvaginal approach for RVF repair with a diverting colostomy. In all four patients, the RVFs were completely eradicated with reestablishment of intestinal continuity and did not recur during the mean follow-up period of 29.5 months, ranging from 12 to 67 months. This report serves to demonstrate that emerging RVFs secondary to stapled anastomosis in low anterior resection for rectal cancer must be recognized, and that a modified transvaginal approach provides an effective method of repair.
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4/264. fibrinogen Matsumoto III: a variant with gamma275 Arg-->Cys (CGC-->TGC)--comparison of fibrin polymerization properties with those of Matsumoto I (gamma364 Asp-->His) and Matsumoto II (gamma308 Asn-->Lys).

    fibrinogen Matsumoto III (M-III) is a dysfibrinogen identified in a 66-year-old woman with rectal cancer. The fibrinogen level determined by the thrombin-time method was markedly decreased in preoperative coagulation tests of her plasma. Three fibrinogen polypeptide-chain gene fragments from the proposita were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method, then sequenced. The triplet CGC encoding the amino acid residue gamma275 was replaced by TGC, resulting in the substitution of Arg->Cys. There have been previous reports of nine families with the same alteration, nine families with an Arg->His variant and one family with an Arg->Ser variant in this residue, which has been shown to be one of the most important amino acids in the 'D:D' interaction site. In addition, there are three silent mutations in the Aalpha-chain gene and two mutations in the intron of the Bbeta-chain and the gamma-chain gene. However, none of these mutations is thought to be the cause of the dysfunctional fibrinogen. The thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization in the presence of 1 mM Ca ions was markedly delayed in purified M-III. Its lag period was longer than those of Matsumoto II (M-II; gamma308Asn->Lys) and Matsumoto I (M-I; gamma364Asp-His). gamma364Asp is one of the most important residues in the polymerization pocket of the 'D:E' interaction site and gamma308Asn is located in the vicinity of a high affinity Ca2 binding site in the D-domain, gamma311-336. The maximum slope of the polymerization curve for M-III was about 4-fold steeper than that for M-1 but less steep than that for M-II. These results may suggest that the tertiary structure of the polymerization pocket plays a more important role in the lateral aggregation of protofibrils than that of the 'D:D' interaction site.
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5/264. A solitary fibrous tumor in the perianal region with a 13-year follow-up: report of a case.

    A case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the perianal region in a 62-year-old man is reported herein. The patient had undergone an abdominoperineal excision of the rectum for an anorectal tumor 13 years previously, and had been referred to our hospital for a perineal mass. Computerized tomography and angiography revealed a markedly hypervascular tumor measuring 11 x 8 cm in size in the pelvic cavity. After preoperative radiotherapy (total 58 Gy) and the embolization of the feeding arteries, he underwent an en bloc excision of the tumor. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of spindle shaped cells with a "patternless" arrangement in a collagenous background. There was immunohistochemical evidence that these cells were strongly positive for CD34, thus suggesting the tumor to be SFT. The previously resected anorectal tumor showed similar histological and immunohistochemical findings. The patient's recovery was uneventful.
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6/264. Combined radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection.

    OBJECTIVES: To present our experience with a small series of men who underwent simultaneous radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection. methods: Three men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were found to have concurrent rectal tumors requiring resection. All three men underwent non-nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection (APR) or low anterior resection (LAR) of the rectum at the same operation. In the 2 patients undergoing APR, the levators were approximated posterior to the urethra, and the bladder was secured to the pubis. The patient undergoing LAR had urinary diversion stents placed and a diverting transverse loop colostomy. RESULTS: All 3 patients had excellent return of urinary continence. One patient required reoperation in the early postoperative period for small bowel adhesiolysis and stoma revision. Another patient had a mild rectal anastomotic stricture and a bladder neck stricture; both were successfully treated with a single dilation. No other significant complications occurred in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Radical retropubic prostatectomy can safely be performed with partial or complete rectal resection in a single operation. A few minor modifications of the standard radical retropubic prostatectomy in this setting are suggested.
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7/264. A case of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma occurring in the rectum.

    A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the rectum is reported. A 64 year-old woman was referred to us for the evaluation of occult blood in the stool. A hard mass was palpable on digital examination. biopsy specimens revealed a histologic picture compatible with MALT lymphoma. Abdominoperineal excision of the rectum was carried out. Chemotherapy was not performed, and the post-operative course was uneventful, with no evidence of recurrence for 2 years and 11 months. Surgical resection is an effective therapy for MALT lymphoma of the rectum.
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8/264. Rectal leiomyosarcoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography.

    A 67 year-old man was admitted to the Tainan Municipal Hospital due to a protruding mass, usually noted during defecation. Digital examination revealed a single, smooth, large mass over the rectum, occupying almost the entire lumen. colonoscopy, barium enema, and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a submucosal tumor of the rectum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) study showed that the tumor originated from the muscle layer. Based on the size, margin and echogenicity of the mass, a malignant neoplasm, probably leiomyosarcoma, was diagnosed. Post-operative histologic examination confirmed that the resected tumor was leiomyosarcoma. Existing ancillary procedures like colonoscopy, abdominal CT, magnetic resonance image (MRI), and barium enema are neither reliable nor accurate in locating which layer the lesion originates. Colonoscopic biopsy is disappointing since submucosal tumor is usually inaccessible. EUS study can provide us with a more distinct image with regards to tumor origin, size, margin and echogenicity. This report emphasizes the important role of EUS in the pre-operative diagnosis of submucosal tumors of the rectum. Furthermore, this tool can aid the surgeons whether wide excision or an abdomino-perineal resection should be performed.
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keywords = operative
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9/264. Malar metastasis from rectal carcinoma: a case report.

    Facial metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is extremely rare. Only two cases have been reported in the literature. This is the first reported case of malar metastasis from colon carcinoma. The patient was a 64-year-old, white woman who underwent a low anterior resection for a nearly obstructive carcinoma at 20 cm. Her chest X-ray revealed lung metastases. Postoperatively she was treated with fluorouracil and leucovorin. Twenty months later, she presented with left facial edema, which progressively increased in size. CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed a large soft tissue mass centered about the left anterior zygomatic arch. The platysma muscle was displaced laterally, and the masseter muscle was involved. There was extension into the masticator space and bony involvement of the zygomatic arch. True-cut biopsy of the left cheek revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. histology was similar to that of the primary rectal adenocarcinoma. Metastasis to the malar region is extremely rare. It is a grave prognostic sign, as it is associated with advanced terminal disease. Because of the widespread metastases, only palliative treatment can be provided.
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10/264. Endosonographic examination of gastrointestinal anastomoses with suspected locoregional tumor recurrence.

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound is considered one of the best tools for the preoperative staging of esophageal, gastric, and rectal carcinoma. Depending on the individual investigator, the sensitivity of preoperative tumor staging by endosonography of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GEUS) is 80-92% for gastric carcinoma and 86-95% for esophageal carcinoma. However, the sensitivity and specificity of endosonography for the staging of lymph node metastases is less accurate. The accuracy of rectal endosonography (REUS) is approximately 90% for tumor assessment and approximately 80% for the detection of lymph node metastases. In this study, we address the question of whether endosonography enables the surgeon to distinguish scar tissue, which is rather homogeneous and echo-rich, from changes such as an anastomositis or a locoregional tumor recurrence, which are typically non-inhomogeneous and echo-poor. methods: During a 24-months period, we studied patients enrolled in a special tumor follow-up care program by either upper gastrointestinal (GEUS, n = 37 patients) or rectal endosonography (REUS, n = 49 patients) for exclusion of a locoregional tumor recurrence. In each patient, local tumor recurrence was suspected because of either medical history, clinical examination, or other diagnostic procedures. RESULTS: As in previous studies, our retrospective analysis revealed that endosonography has a high sensitivity in the detection of local tumor recurrences (>90%) for both GEUS and REUS. CONCLUSION: endosonography is a highly accurate means of detecting local tumor recurrence.
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