Cases reported "Rectal Neoplasms"

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1/1412. The effectiveness of chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil for recurrent small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of a 46-year-old-man with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) concomitant with large villous adenoma of the rectum, who underwent abdominoperineal resection with regional lymphnode dissection. The resected specimen was histologically found to contain a small lesion of NEC confined to the submucosa in the large adenoma. A computed tomography scan done 4 months postoperatively revealed recurrences in the liver, lymph nodes, and bone. Therefore, two cycles of sequential intravenous combined chemotherapy with standard doses of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were administered, after which the size of each tumor decreased remarkably. Nevertheless, the patient died 8 months after the operation. As there was a fair response of this tumor to the combined chemotherapy of cisplatin and 5-FU, this regimen against NEC of the colon and rectum should be given consideration. ( info)

2/1412. Primary anorectal malignant melanoma: report of a case.

    Primary anorectal malignant melanoma is a fairly uncommon but highly malignant disease. This disease is sometimes mistaken for such benign conditions as either a hemorrhoid or rectal polyp. We herein describe a case of early primary malignant melanoma of the anal canal. In this case, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was found to be useful for diagnosing the melanotic melanoma. We especially emphasize the usefulness of a fat-saturation MR image in distinguishing melanotic melanoma from other rectal tumors. ( info)

3/1412. MR imaging of complex tail-gut cysts.

    Retrorectal-cyst hamartomas (RCH) are rare developmental tail-gut cystic tumours of the retrorectal space, which occasionally undergo malignant transformation. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two patients with RCH and in a third patient with unclassified sarcoma arising from a RCH. The RCH were hypointense or hyperintense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images; they did not enhance and they contained multiple septations. A solid component in the periphery of one cyst was markedly hypointense on T2-weighted images in keeping with fibrous material. The sarcoma arising from the wall of the RCH enhanced and was of intermediate signal intensity on all sequences. MR may help establish the diagnosis of RCH if an unenhanced cystic tumour is discovered in the retrorectal space and it can help detect those rare cases of malignant transformation of these developmental tumours. ( info)

4/1412. Synchronous and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review.

    Whilst synchronous adenocarcinoma of the stomach is well documented, metachronous primary disease is exceedingly rare. We report a man with a family history of colonic and gastric cancer, who underwent a resection of a Duke's C adenocarcinoma of the rectum, aged 56 years, and a proximal partial gastrectomy for synchronous stage 1 gastric adenocarcinomas of the lesser curve, aged 61 years. Nine years later, a metachronous gastric primary was discovered in the gastric remnant, necessitating total gastrectomy. Total gastrectomy is the operation of choice for synchronous gastric primaries as it ensures clearance and prevents metachronous growth. However, it may not be appropriate for all gastric cancer as operative morbidity and mortality are increased, and because synchronicity and metachronicity of gastric cancer are uncommon. Moreover, there are no consistent data to demonstrate a survival advantage for total compared with partial gastrectomy for operable gastric cancer. If, after partial gastrectomy, synchronous disease is detected in the resected specimen (as in this reported case), endoscopic surveillance for metachronous disease is advised, since this may be amenable to surgical cure. ( info)

5/1412. A case of chordoma in association with rectal carcinoma.

    A 74-year-old male patient presented with anal and sacral pain 18 months after abdomino-perineal resection for rectal cancer. Computerized tomography (CT) of the pelvis demonstrated a well defined mass anterior to the lower sacrum, posteriorly infiltrating and destroying the fourth and fifth sacral nerves and invading the right gluteal fossa. A 7.5 x 15 x 2 cm encapsulated mass was demonstrated during the operation using a posterior approach and the lower sacral segments together with the tumour were removed by amputation at S3 level. Histopathology revealed chordoma. This case is unique because of the rarity of chordoma in association with rectal tumour at the sacrococcygeal region. ( info)

6/1412. An unusual location of cloacogenic carcinoma.

    A 61 year-old female presented with abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, mucus discharge, tenesmus and constipation. Rectal examination and proctoscopy demonstrated rectal stenosis at 5 cm from the anal verge. Transrectal ultrasonography detected a capsulated lesion as a mesenchymal rectal tumor. Computed tomography and endorectal magnetic resonance detected a mesenchymal lesion in the lower-middle rectal thirds. serum TPA, GICA, SCC and CYFRA were pathological. At surgery the tumour was fixed to the levator ani muscle with rectal folding. frozen sections of the levator ani muscle biopsies revealed cloacogenic tumour. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The rectal lesion was cloacogenic carcinoma at 9 cm from the dentate line (pT4 pN0; Ki67 35%; CD31 181 vessels/mm2). Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was performed. The patient is alive and disease free at 19 months. Extra-anal cloacogenic tumours are an unusual finding. Perhaps cloacal cells were originally present in the rectal wall, but secondary rectal involvement by cloacal remnant from the levator ani muscle cannot be excluded. ( info)

7/1412. Myositis and malignancy: is there a true association?

    There may be an association between polymyositis/dermatomyositis and malignant disease. Cancer occurs in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis with a frequency estimated between 2.5% and 29% (relative risk 1.0 to 6.5). We present two such cases, associated with colorectal carcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma respectively, together with an overview of existing controlled studies in the area. ( info)

8/1412. An unusual cause of rectal bleeding in a patient with cystic fibrosis.

    Here we identify a previously unreported cause of rectal bleeding (juvenile polyposis) in a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF). We believe this patient most likely has two coexisting genetic diseases. It also raises many issues about organ transplantation in a patient with medical conditions that individually increase the risk of gastrointestinal malignancy and stresses the diagnostic value of endoscopy in CF patients with rectal bleeding. ( info)

9/1412. The partial gluteus maximus musculocutaneous turnover flap. An alternative concept for simultaneous reconstruction of combined defects of the posterior perineum/sacrum and the posterior vaginal wall.

    Three cases with posterior perineo-sacral defects are presented. One is a 57-year-old white female following amputation of her rectum for carcinoma, radiation and chemotherapy with a significant residual sacral/perineal defect and loss of the posterior vaginal wall. The two other patients had radical pelvic exenteration after recurrent rectum carcinoma. A new myocutaneous turnover flap as a modification of the conventional gluteus maximus flap was designed to solve the particular reconstructive problems. The flap is based on branches of the inferior gluteal artery. The posterior cutaneous femoral nerve and the motor branches of the inferior gluteal nerve not leading into the muscle portion of the flap are left intact. The skin island can be used for vaginal reconstruction or can be de-epithelialised to fill perineal cavities. This new flap eventually enabled the successful reconstruction of the posterior vaginal wall and appropriate sacral/perineal soft tissue coverage in the first case. In the other patients the flap was used to achieve closure of the deep through-and-through defect acutely in one case, and after a 3-week interval in the other. ( info)

10/1412. Embolization--an optional treatment for intractable hemorrhage from a malignant rectovaginal fistula: report of a case.

    PURPOSE: patients rarely have intractable hemorrhage from rectovaginal fistulas, which usually require surgical intervention. This report presents our experience with nonsurgical treatment of a high-risk patient with uncontrolled hemorrhage originating from a malignant rectovaginal fistula. methods: A 74-year-old female developed uncontrolled hemorrhage from a malignant rectovaginal fistula. Because of her poor physical condition, an embolization with metal clips of the right and left hypogastric arteries was performed, distal to the superior gluteal artery. RESULTS: Embolization was successful in controlling the rectovaginal bleeding, allowing the patient to live 12 months. She refused adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Selective angiography and embolization is a worthwhile alternative in patients with uncontrolled bleeding from a malignant rectovaginal fistula who are poor candidates for surgical intervention. ( info)
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