Cases reported "Recurrence"

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1/492. Cryptococcus meningoencephalitis in AIDS: parenchymal and meningeal forms.

    CT and MRI in one case of cryptococcus neoformans infection showed contrast-enhancing parenchymal lesions resembling granulomata or abscesses. After an initial phase without contrast enhancement, the full extent of the lesions was visible within 2 weeks of presentation. The enhancing masses were assumed to represent intracerebral cryptococcomas. Despite evidence of massive meningeal infection on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, no radiological signs of meningitis, invasion of the Virchow-Robin spaces or ventriculitis could be demonstrated. With antimycotic treatment the contrast enhancement disappeared and cystic, partly calcified lesions remained. recurrence of meningeal infection without radiological correlates was apparent in this stage. In a second case of proven cryptococcus meningitis, dilation of Virchow-Robin spaces or cysts in the adjacent parenchyma were the main abnormalities on MRI. Enhancing masses were not detected. These cases may represent two different reactions of the immunocompromised hosts to infection with C. neoformans: widening of the perivascular spaces as a correlate of the more typical meningeal infection and enhancing parenchymal lesions as a sign of further invasion from the CSF spaces. Enhancement of cryptococcomas, indicating an inflammatory response in the surrounding brain, is not typical in patients with impairment of immune function.
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2/492. Bilateral aortoostial coronary artery disease: moyamoya of the heart?

    Moyamoya is a vascular occlusive disease typically limited to the cerebral arterial system. We report a case of severe stenosis of the left main and right coronary arteries occurring in association with moyamoya disease, supporting the concept that moyamoya may be an intracranial manifestation of a systemic arterial disorder.
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3/492. Three ventriculoplasty techniques applied to three left-ventricular pseudoaneurysms in the same patient.

    A 59-year-old male patient underwent surgery for triple-vessel coronary artery disease and left-ventricular aneurysm in 1994. Four months after coronary artery bypass grafting and classical left-ventricular aneurysmectomy (with Teflon felt strips), a left-ventricular pseudoaneurysm developed due to infection, and this was treated surgically with an autologous glutaraldehyde-treated pericardium patch over which an omental pedicle graft was placed. Two months later, under emergent conditions, re-repair was performed with a diaphragmatic pericardial pedicle graft due to pseudoaneurysm reformation and rupture. A 3rd repair was required in a 3rd episode 8 months later. Sternocostal resection enabled implantation of the left pectoralis major muscle into the ventricular defect. Six months after the last surgical intervention, the patient died of cerebral malignancy. Pseudoaneurysm reformation, however, had not been observed. To our knowledge, our case is the 1st reported in the literature in which there have been 3 or more different operative techniques applied to 3 or more distinct episodes of pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to post-aneurysmectomy infection. We propose that pectoral muscle flaps be strongly considered as a material for re-repair of left-ventricular aneurysms.
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4/492. Recurrent pericardial effusion due to gunshot wound of the heart in a hemodynamically stable child--a case report.

    A 12-year-old girl presented with recurrent pericardial effusion due to firearm pellet injury to the left ventricle. The pellet was localized by two-dimensional echocardiography within the left ventricular apical wall. Since the patient was asymptomatic, left ventriculotomy was avoided to extract the pellet and only pericardial tube drainage was carried out. A slightly elevated blood lead level of the patient was alarming for potential subsequent lead poisoning due to retained pellets.
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keywords = ventricle
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5/492. Coiling of recurrent and residual cerebral aneurysms after unsuccessful clipping.

    We treated four patients with 3 recurrent and 1 residual aneurysm after surgical clipping by using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). Three subjects presented after a second subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurring between 10 and 25 years after the first bleeding. Early postoperative angiography of the fourth patient showed an incompletely clipped aneurysm. In three poor grade patients we observed one good outcome, one fair result and one death due to the sequelae of SAH. One good grade patient remained in excellent condition postoperatively. Three aneurysms were totally occluded and in one a more than 90% occlusion was achieved with GDCs. We consider the treatment with GDC a viable alternative to reoperation in all patients with recurrent or residual aneurysms following failed attempt at surgical obliteration.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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6/492. Development of a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. A theory on its pathogenesis.

    The progression of congenital arachnoid cysts has seldom been documented. We report the case of a child who was diagnosed with arrested hydrocephalus at the age of 13 months. neuroimaging studies performed when the girl was 22 months old showed the appearance of an arachnoid cyst in the right middle fossa, while the previously enlarged ventricles seemed to have decreased in size. To the best of our knowledge, the paradoxical expansion of an arachnoid pouch following a reduction in the size of the ventricular system has not previously been documented. We advance the hypothesis that the development of some cases of arachnoid cyst might be pathogenically related to impaired CSF dynamics associated with pre-existing hydrocephalus. We also briefly review the pertinent literature on the formation and evolution of congenital cerebral arachnoid cysts.
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ranking = 1.4484744291883
keywords = cerebral, ventricle
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7/492. Carotid ligation for carotid aneurysms.

    Thirty patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to rupture of a carotid aneurysm were treated by ligation of the common carotid artery. Two patients died as a result of the procedure, two patients developed persisting hemisphere deficit. Eight of the ten patients who developed cerebral ischemia after the operation were operated within ten days after the bleeding. At present out aim is to guide the patient safely through the first ten days after his haemorrhage and perform ligation at the end of the second week. After a follow up period of 1-8 years recurrent haemorrhage did not occur. Common carotid ligation, preferably with control of carotid artery end pressure, cerebral blood-flow and EEG is considered to be a valuable method to treat ruptured intracranial carotid aneurysm.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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8/492. Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as a pituitary tumour.

    A 45-year-old woman had pyrexia, headaches, collapse and hyponatraemia. Intracerebral abscess, bacterial meningitis and subarachnoid haemorrhage were excluded. She was given intravenous antibiotics and gradually recovered. One month later she was readmitted with diplopia, headache and vomiting. serum sodium was low (107 mmol/l) and a diagnosis of inappropriate ADH secretion was made. MRI scan showed a suprasellar tumour arising from the posterior pituitary gland. A skin rash gradually faded. serum cortisol, prolactin, gonadotrophins and thyroid hormone levels were low. A pituitary tumour was removed trans-sphenoidally, she had external pituitary radiotherapy, and replacement hydrocortisone and thyroxine. She was well for 12 months when she developed progressive weakness and numbness of both legs. Examination suggested spinal cord compression at the level of T2 where MRI scanning showed an intradural enhancing mass. This spinal tumour was removed and her neurological symptoms disappeared. Nine months after this she developed facial pain and nasal obstruction. CT scan showed tumour growth into the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavities. A right Cauldwell-Luc operation was done and residual tumour in the nasal passages was treated by fractionated external radiotherapy and prednisolone. Histological examination of the specimens from pituitary, spinal mass, and nasal sinuses showed Rosai-Dorfman disease, a rare entity characterized by histiocytic proliferation, emperipolesis (lymphophagocytosis) and lymphadenopathy. aged 48 she developed cranial diabetes insipidus. Although Rosai-Dorfman syndrome is rare, it is being reported with increasing frequency, and should be borne in mind as a possible cause of a pituitary tumour.
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keywords = cerebral
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9/492. Reactivation of neurocysticercosis: case report.

    A 37-year-old woman with a known history of longstanding neurocysticercosis presented with a three-day history of new onset headache. Several years prior to her current presentation, she had undergone cysticidal treatment and was assumed to be cured of active disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies done three months prior to presentation showed multiple intracerebral calcified lesions consistent with resolved neurocysticercosis. Physical and laboratory findings were noncontributory. Imaging studies showed the same previously calcified lesions, but they were now surrounded by large amounts of edema. This case represents a unique report of reactivation of neurocysticercosis and raises interesting questions about the natural history of this infection.
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keywords = cerebral
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10/492. sarcoma of the main pulmonary artery: an unusual etiology for recurrent pulmonary emboli.

    We describe a case of primary pulmonary artery (PA) trunk spindle cell sarcoma in an 86 year old female presenting clinically with debilitating signs of recurrent pulmonary embolism. Further extensive work aroused suspicion for pulmonary artery malignancy. Palliative wide surgical resection, pulmonary artery tumor embolectomy and reconstruction of the proximal pulmonary artery and right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) with bovine pericardial tissue were performed. She survived the procedure with an improved quality of life, but expired due to recurrence at 6 months postoperatively. Albeit uncommon, pulmonary artery sarcoma is nowadays a more frequently preoperatively diagnosed and surgically treated malignancy. With a modern low perioperative mortality, aggressive surgical resection remains as the single most effective modality for its treatment and can result in short term palliation in selected patients.
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ranking = 0.44847442918834
keywords = ventricle
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