Cases reported "Recurrence"

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11/30. hematopoiesis-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens HA-1- or HA-2-specific T cells can induce complete remissions of relapsed leukemia.

    Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) into patients with a relapse of their leukemia or multiple myeloma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) has been shown to be a successful treatment approach. The hematopoiesis-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAgs) HA-1 or HA-2 expressed on malignant cells of the recipient may serve as target antigens for alloreactive donor T cells. Recently we treated three mHAg HA-1- and/or HA-2-positive patients with a relapse of their disease after alloSCT with DLI from their mHAg HA-1- and/or HA-2-negative donors. Using HLA-A2HA-1 and HA-2 peptide tetrameric complexes we showed the emergence of HA-1- and HA-2-specific CD8( ) T cells in the blood of the recipients 5-7 weeks after DLI. The appearance of these tetramer-positive cells was followed immediately by a complete remission of the disease and restoration of 100% donor chimerism in each of the patients. Furthermore, cloned tetramer-positive T cells isolated during the clinical response specifically recognized HA-1 and HA-2 expressing malignant progenitor cells of the recipient and inhibited the growth of leukemic precursor cells in vitro. Thus, HA-1- and HA-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes emerging in the blood of patients after DLI demonstrate graft-versus-leukemia or myeloma reactivity resulting in a durable remission. This finding implies that in vitro generated HA-1- and HA-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes could be used as adoptive immunotherapy to treat hematological malignancies relapsing after alloSCT.
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keywords = chimerism
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12/30. Reduced-intensity bone marrow transplantation from an alternative unrelated donor for myelodysplastic syndrome of first-donor origin.

    A male patient had a relapse of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) 2 years after BMT from a female matched unrelated donor. Conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and short-tandem repeat chimerism analysis proved a relapse of donor origin. He underwent reduced-intensity BMT after a conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan, since he had impaired renal, liver, and pulmonary functions. chimerism analysis on day 28 after the second BMT showed mixed chimerism of the first and the second donors, which later turned to full second-donor chimerism on day 60. He developed grade II acute GVHD of the skin and cytomegalovirus reactivation, but both were improved with methylprednisolone and ganciclovir, respectively. He remains in complete remission 6 months after the second BMT. Reduced-intensity second BMT from an alternative donor appeared to be a tolerable treatment option for donor-derived leukemia/MDS after the first conventional transplantation.
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ranking = 3
keywords = chimerism
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13/30. Successful immunotherapy in early relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    We report on a 35-year-old woman who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in second complete remission (CR) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine and 2 Gy of total body irradiation. For graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, cyclosporin A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were given. On day 27 after SCT complete hematological remission and donor chimerism was documented. However, in CD34( ) bone marrow cells 28% of recipient hematopoiesis persisted. On day 59 leukemic relapse occurred. After discontinuation of CsA and onset of GVHD, complete donor chimerism and hematological CR were achieved which has been maintained for 14 months.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chimerism
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14/30. Early recurrence of rheumatoid arthritis after nonmyeloablative allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    Allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation with reduced conditioning has been proposed as a new, potentially curative treatment option for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report a 60-year-old woman with RA and coexisting multiple myeloma who was treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous blood stem cell transplantation (BSCT) followed by a nonmyeloablative allogeneic BSCT from her healthy dizygotic twin brother. She achieved a complete remission of her RA after autologous BSCT, but relapsed early despite complete donor chimerism following successful allogeneic transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning. This case illustrates that allogeneic BSCT following nonmyeloablative conditioning may be an uncertain option for curing patients with RA.
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keywords = chimerism
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15/30. Molecular remission occurring after donor leukocyte infusions for the treatment of relapsed chronic myelogenous leukemia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Donor leukocyte infusions were administered to a patient who had relapsed with chronic myelogenous leukemia after having failed two successive HLA-matched allogeneic bone marrow transplants. Serial cytogenetic, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and polymerase chain reaction studies of the patient's marrow and blood after receiving donor leukocyte infusions revealed disappearance of the leukemic clone and the establishment of complete donor chimerism. An antileukemic response in this patient occurred initially in the absence of clinically evident graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but complete eradication of the leukemic clone did not occur until after the onset of GVHD. The patient is now 48 weeks post infusion and remains in complete remission. This case demonstrates that leukocyte infusions are an effective form of adoptive immunotherapy which can result in a sustained molecular remission.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chimerism
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16/30. Current results on the use of imatinib mesylate in patients with relapsed philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia after allogeneic or syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Here, we describe a patient diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia who relapsed after matched unrelated donor SCT. The patient was treated with imatinib mesylate and donor lymphocyte infusions, and achieved a complete molecular remission. Additionally, safety and efficacy of imatinib mesylate in a total of 134 patients from 8 centers who underwent allogeneic or syngeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and had a relapse of philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia was reviewed. Data was compiled from abstracts accepted as oral or poster presentations at the ASH (American Society of hematology) 2001 and EBMT (European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation) 2001 & 2002 meetings and additionally literature published on this patient group. Efficacy of imatinib therapy was assessed by morphology, cytogenetic analysis, and determination of donor chimerism. In the evaluable population, hematologic and cytogenetic responses were observed in 66% and 60% of the patients, respectively. Fifty-one of 114 (45%) patients achieved a complete cytogenetic response. No response or progress of disease was noted in 22 out of evaluable 91 patients. The observation period was limited to a maximum of 28 months. A significant improvement in donor chimerism was frequently observed. Only five cases of significant GVHD were reported. Preliminary results show that imatinib mesylate has the potential to positively influence the ratio of donor and recipient cells without inducing a high incidence of severe GVHD. The data suggest that earlier start of imatinib mesylate prior to hematologic relapse in minimum residual disease (MRD) positive patients is a promising treatment concept.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chimerism
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17/30. Successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with relapsed Hodgkin's disease following autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Use of myeloablative preparative therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) as salvage therapy for adult patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies after autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) is generally unsuccessful due to very high treatment-related mortality rates. We report here the outcome of HLA-matched related donor alloSCT following nonmyeloablative preparative therapy in two patients with Hodgkin's disease, relapsed after autologous stem cell graft. Times from autoSCT to alloSCT were 9 and 11 months, respectively. Preparative therapy consisted of the following: oral busulfan, 4 mg/kg on days -6 and -5; intravenous (i.v.) cyclophosphamide, 350 mg/m2 on days -4, -3 and, -2, and i.v. fludarabine, 30 mg/m2 on days -4, -3, and -2; oral cyclosporin A (CyA) 5 mg/kg was begun on day -1 and i.v. methotrexate 5 mg/m2 was delivered on days 1, 3, 5, and 11. Both patients achieved initial mixed chimerism as defined as > 1% donor peripheral white blood cells and did not receive prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions; both showed conversion to final full-donor chimerism. Stage I acute graft-vs.-host disease occurred in one patient and both achieved sustained complete response. One patient died on day 233 as a consequence of drug-induced pulmonary toxicity, whereas the other patient remains in continued complete remission 513 days after allograft. This nonmyeloablative alloSCT strategy was well tolerated, was completed entirely on an out-patient basis, and can result in durable disease-free survival among patients with Hodgkin's disease after failed autoSCT. Further follow-up and evaluation of additional patients are required to conclusively establish the role of this strategy in treatment of hematologic malignancies after autologous transplantation.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chimerism
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18/30. Successful treatment of JMML relapsed after unrelated allogeneic transplant with cytoreduction followed by DLI and interferon-alpha: evidence for a graft-versus-leukemia effect in non-monosomy-7 JMML.

    Relapse is the major cause of treatment failure after allogeneic transplantation of children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and the role of post-transplant immunomodulation is poorly understood. We report a 12-month-old child with JMML relapsed after unrelated marrow transplantation who received cytoreduction followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) with improvement, and after addition of interferon-alpha (IFN) achieved complete donor chimerism. He was weaned from IFN and has maintained complete remission for 19 months. This is the first published report of a patient with non-monosomy-7 JMML responding to post-transplant immunomodulation and suggests a role for DLI plus IFN in these patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chimerism
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19/30. Donor cell myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation responding to donor lymphocyte infusion: case report and literature review.

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Relapses after transplantation however, are not uncommon and are usually due to re-emergence of a recipient derived, neoplastic, stem cell clone. We report a unique case of MDS recurring 5 months after non-myeloablative, sibling, allogeneic SCT. Interestingly, chimerism analysis at relapse showed hematopoiesis to be entirely of donor origin confirming donor cell MDS. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) produced a hematological response lasting several months. Our review of the literature shows donor-derived MDS to be very rare, with only four such cases described previously. In this report, we describe the details of our case and discuss putative mechanisms underlying the genesis of donor cell MDS and the observed response to DLI.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chimerism
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20/30. Unrelated bone marrow transplantation for high-risk anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric patients: a single center case series.

    OBJECTIVES: The use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in NHL patients is not yet clearly defined, especially in children and adolescents, but this option offers the advantages of a tumor-free graft and the possible induction of a graft-vs.-tumor effect. patients AND methods: We report the results of four consecutive pediatric patients affected by anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor. The conditioning regimen was based on total body irradiation given in association with etoposide in three patients, and with thiotepa and cyclophoshamide in one patient. Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporin, a short course of methotrexate and rabbit antithymocyte globulin. RESULTS: All patients had rapid engraftment within 3-4 wk for neutrophils and platelets, and achieved a stable full donor chimerism that has been maintained to the last follow-up visit. One patient later developed a restrictive pneumonopathy. This patient had been heavily pretreated during the course of the disease having suffered four relapses and had received a cumulative dose of bleomycin of 160 mg/m(2). After a follow-up of 11-42 months, all patients are alive in complete hematological and molecular remission; and three of them without any chronic GVHD. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing number of volunteer bone marrow donors and the reduced toxicity of unrelated stem cell transplantation, especially in children, make this therapeutic option worth more extensive investigation in the treatment of high-risk failure ALCL, although more data is needed to evaluate the long-term benefits. In this regard, the presence of factors predictive of worst outcome such as an early relapse (within 12 months from diagnosis), a refractory or relapsing ALCL and the persistent detection on blood or bone marrow of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein (NPM-ALK) transcript may help select the patients eligible to allogeneic related or unrelated stem cell transplantation.
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keywords = chimerism
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