Cases reported "Recurrence"

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1/104. Haemosuccus pancreaticus: a clinical challenge.

    BACKGROUND: Haemosuccus pancreaticus is a rare complication of pancreatitis. It is a diagnostic problem for even the most astute clinician and a challenge for the expert endoscopist. We report a 25-year-old male patient who had all the features usually seen in haemosuccus pancreaticus patients: recurrent obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis, pseudocyst formation, ductal disruption, fistula and pancreatic ascites. The patient was treated by subtotal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and drainage of the pseudocyst. Although pancreatic duct communication with the surrounding vasculature could not be ascertained, we strongly believe the patient had haemosuccus pancreaticus because, over a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient was not only ascites free, but did not experience any further upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We believe that in evaluating patients with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, one should always remember that the pancreas is a part of the gastrointestinal tract and, like other organs, is prone to blood loss.
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ranking = 1
keywords = blood loss
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2/104. Watermelon stomach--an unusual cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a uremic patient receiving estrogen-progesterone therapy: case report.

    A 50-year-old woman who had been on maintenance hemodialysis for 5 years developed severe anemia resistant to treatment with iron supplements and erythropoietin 4 months prior to hospital admission. Her stool occult blood test was positive, and an initial panendoscopy revealed evidence of possible antral gastritis. However, repeated administration of sucralfate, H2 blockers and a proton pump inhibitor was not effective in preventing further gastrointestinal tract blood loss and subsequent refractory anemia. She required multiple blood transfusions and hospital admissions during this period. There was no obvious coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. After her third admission, a second panendoscopy demonstrated the typical picture of watermelon stomach. A trial of hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone increased the hemoglobin level within a month without further evidence of active gastrointestinal bleeding. From our experience with this case, we found that the diagnosis of antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) with bleeding requires a high degree of clinical alertness and careful endoscopic examination. Estrogen and progesterone therapy may provide a good option for treating the disease in uremic patients without an obvious complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of maintenance hormone therapy in a female uremic patient to successfully treat watermelon gastric bleeding.
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ranking = 1
keywords = blood loss
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3/104. Carotid ligation for carotid aneurysms.

    Thirty patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to rupture of a carotid aneurysm were treated by ligation of the common carotid artery. Two patients died as a result of the procedure, two patients developed persisting hemisphere deficit. Eight of the ten patients who developed cerebral ischemia after the operation were operated within ten days after the bleeding. At present out aim is to guide the patient safely through the first ten days after his haemorrhage and perform ligation at the end of the second week. After a follow up period of 1-8 years recurrent haemorrhage did not occur. Common carotid ligation, preferably with control of carotid artery end pressure, cerebral blood-flow and EEG is considered to be a valuable method to treat ruptured intracranial carotid aneurysm.
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ranking = 10.774183858263
keywords = haemorrhage
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4/104. Fatal haemorrhage from Dieulafoy's disease of the bronchus.

    A 70 year old woman with a previous history of healed tuberculosis and suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with recurrent haemoptysis and respiratory failure from a lobar pneumonia. Massive bleeding occurred when biopsy specimens were taken during bronchoscopy which was managed conservatively, but later there was a fatal rebleed from the same site. Two different Dieulafoy's vascular malformations were found in the bronchial tree at necropsy, one of which was the biopsied lesion in the left upper lobe. This report confirms the possibility that vascular lesions occur in the bronchial tree. It is suggested that, if such lesions are suspected at bronchoscopy, bronchial and pulmonary arteriography with possible embolotherapy should be performed.
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ranking = 14.365578477684
keywords = haemorrhage
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5/104. Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as a pituitary tumour.

    A 45-year-old woman had pyrexia, headaches, collapse and hyponatraemia. Intracerebral abscess, bacterial meningitis and subarachnoid haemorrhage were excluded. She was given intravenous antibiotics and gradually recovered. One month later she was readmitted with diplopia, headache and vomiting. serum sodium was low (107 mmol/l) and a diagnosis of inappropriate ADH secretion was made. MRI scan showed a suprasellar tumour arising from the posterior pituitary gland. A skin rash gradually faded. serum cortisol, prolactin, gonadotrophins and thyroid hormone levels were low. A pituitary tumour was removed trans-sphenoidally, she had external pituitary radiotherapy, and replacement hydrocortisone and thyroxine. She was well for 12 months when she developed progressive weakness and numbness of both legs. Examination suggested spinal cord compression at the level of T2 where MRI scanning showed an intradural enhancing mass. This spinal tumour was removed and her neurological symptoms disappeared. Nine months after this she developed facial pain and nasal obstruction. CT scan showed tumour growth into the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavities. A right Cauldwell-Luc operation was done and residual tumour in the nasal passages was treated by fractionated external radiotherapy and prednisolone. Histological examination of the specimens from pituitary, spinal mass, and nasal sinuses showed Rosai-Dorfman disease, a rare entity characterized by histiocytic proliferation, emperipolesis (lymphophagocytosis) and lymphadenopathy. aged 48 she developed cranial diabetes insipidus. Although Rosai-Dorfman syndrome is rare, it is being reported with increasing frequency, and should be borne in mind as a possible cause of a pituitary tumour.
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ranking = 3.591394619421
keywords = haemorrhage
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6/104. Fatal pulmonary haemorrhage during anaesthesia for bronchial artery embolization in cystic fibrosis.

    Three children with cystic fibrosis (CF) had significant pulmonary haemorrhage during anaesthetic induction prior to bronchial artery embolization (BAE). Haemorrhage was associated with rapid clinical deterioration and subsequent early death. We believe that the stresses associated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) were the most likely precipitant to rebleeding and that the inability to clear blood through coughing was also an important factor leading to deterioration. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation should be avoided when possible in children with CF with recent significant pulmonary haemorrhage.
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ranking = 21.548367716526
keywords = haemorrhage
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7/104. Haemosuccus pancreaticus due to mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: the significance of recurrent abdominal pain, hyperamylasaemia and a pancreatic cyst in association with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Haemosuccus pancreaticus is a rare cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and when it presents in otherwise healthy people, can prove difficult to diagnose. The cardinal features are episodic epigastric pain associated with a raised serum amylase and the passage of melaena. Failure to make the connection between recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and apparently unrelated symptoms attributable to pancreatitis may lead to a significant delay in diagnosis.
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ranking = 3.591394619421
keywords = haemorrhage
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8/104. Portal hypertension secondary to arterio-portal fistulae: two unusual cases.

    A 62-year-old male presented with variceal haemorrhage. Investigation demonstrated a fistula between the left gastric artery and portal vein with a porto-systemic gradient of 35 mm Hg. Variceal bleeding was controlled by a transcatheter embolisation of the fistula, but the patient died of septicaemia three weeks later. The second patient, a 42-year-old male who presented with variceal bleeding was shown to have diffuse arterio-venous fistulae involving the right lobe of the liver with a portosystemic gradient of 25 mm Hg. In this case the variceal bleeding was successfully controlled by insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). The pathogenesis of portal hypertension in arterioportal fistulae and the role of interventional radiological techniques in the management of variceal bleeding in these patients is discussed.
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ranking = 3.591394619421
keywords = haemorrhage
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9/104. endoscopy as a tool for diagnosing and treating gastrointestinal angiodysplasia in haemodialysis patients.

    Gastroenteric angiodysplasia is an important cause of haemorrhage in chronic renal failure patients. This paper reports on 2 patients on maintenance haemodialysis with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to different manifestations of angiodysplasic lesions (sudden appearance of haematemesis and melaena in one case, progressive anaemia with apparent resistance to erythropoietin in the other case). Exploratory endoscope examination of the first digestive tract showed in both cases the presence of bleeding angiodysplasic lesions. Both patients were there and then submitted to surgical endoscopy, during which the bleeding angiodysplasic lesion was sclerosed with physiological salt solution plus adrenaline 1/10000 and 1% polydocanol. In one patient, bleeding occurred again ten days later, making renewed surgical endoscopy necessary. In the course of this an elastic ligature was made to the superangular angiodysplasia. A year later in both cases there were no direct or indirect signs of further bleeding; an endoscopic check-up showed the treated lesions to be sclerosed. endoscopy offers the unique possibility of being used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in a single session. In expert hands, endoscope therapy is effective and markedly reduces the risk of side effects.
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ranking = 3.591394619421
keywords = haemorrhage
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10/104. Recurrent malignant hypertension: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Malignant hypertension (MHT) is a rare and life-threatening condition which is defined clinically as severe hypertension accompanied by bilateral retinal haemorrhages and/or hard exudates, with or without papilloedema. If untreated, the prognosis of MHT is poor. With MHT being a relatively rare condition, it would be unusual to see it on more than one occasion in the same patient. We describe in detail two cases from a disease register of 400 cases of MHT seen in one medical centre over 33 years.
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ranking = 3.591394619421
keywords = haemorrhage
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