Cases reported "Recurrence"

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1/832. Late graft rejection and second infusion of bone marrow in children with aplastic anaemia.

    Late graft rejection following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for aplastic anaemia is a significant clinical problem and is associated with a high risk of mortality. We report two children with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) who developed very late graft rejection 2 years and 4 months and 10 years respectively after allogeneic BMT from HLA-identical siblings. Following a second BMT from their initial donors, engraftment has been sustained in both cases. The patients are alive with full donor chimaerism, 18 and 19 years from initial transplant. These cases illustrate that graft failure can be an extremely late event after allogeneic BMT for SAA, and that long-term sustained engraftment can be achieved in these patients with second BMT from the original donors.
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2/832. Eighteen fractures in a man with profound mental retardation.

    A 39-year-old man with generalized tonic clonic epilepsy and profound mental retardation sustained 18 fractures (15 in appendicular and 3 in axial bones) during 19 years. Both femoral necks were fractured, requiring surgical repair. Although he had been on antiepileptic drugs for 35 years, he had no radiographic or biochemical sign of osteomalacia. He had a very low bone mineral density, suggesting osteoporosis. This case illustrates an important medical problem affecting people with developmental disability and a management challenge for their caretakers.
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3/832. Recurrent subdural haematoma as the primary and sole manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    An 81-year-old man with a recurrent subdural haematoma as the first and only manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is described. Microscopic examination of the encapsulated haematoma showed leukaemic infiltration and the diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration and by pathological examination of the brain at autopsy.
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4/832. Autologous bone marrow transplantation for recurrent malignant lymphoma after liver transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Cancer chemotherapy in chronic carriers of hepatitis b virus is known to promote viral replication, and, when immunosuppressive treatment is stopped, the return of immune competence can be followed by a fulminant hepatitis. liver transplantation may be required and has been successfully performed for this condition. However, malignancy recurrence after transplantation has not been reported yet. methods AND RESULTS: We here report the case of an asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen carrier who developed a malignant lymphoma, which was treated by chemotherapy. After cessation of chemotherapy, he developed a fulminant hepatitis, requiring liver transplantation. Three years later, he developed a recurrent malignant lymphoma, which was treated successfully by autologous bone marrow transplantation. In order to prevent viral replication, lamivudine and intermittent administration of fresh-frozen plasma highly concentrated in anti-HBs immunoglobulin was initiated before the bone marrow transplantation. The patient remains well 12 and 56 months after autologous bone marrow and liver transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This experience suggests that all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients for whom chemotherapy is indicated would benefit from prophylactic antiviral hepatitis b virus therapy. Furthermore, successful autologous bone marrow transplantation is possible after liver transplantation.
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5/832. Two separate episodes of hemophagocytic syndrome at a two-year interval in an apparently immunocompetent male.

    We describe two separate episodes of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) at an interval of two years in a seemingly immunocompetent male. This case suggests the possible existence of an inherent predisposition to HPS, in which otherwise negligible self-limited viral infection may trigger HPS. Laboratory data for a 16-year-old boy admitted with persistent high grade fever and severe thrombocytopenia disclosed coagulation abnormality, liver damage, and hypercytokinemia. A bone marrow aspiration revealed a proliferation of histiocytes with fresh hemophagocytosis. We diagnosed that he was suffering from HPS. Responding to steroid pulse therapy, he recovered completely and was discharged. After two years of healthy life, he became febrile again and was readmitted. The fever was refractory to antibiotics and was associated with a sudden drop in platelet count. Laboratory data and the bone marrow picture were consistent with those of HPS. He was again successfully treated with steroid. After the second episode, he has been healthy for more than two years.
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6/832. Abdominal ultrasound findings in children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a variant of histiocytosis, is characterized by an uncontrolled activation of the cellular immune system, including hepatic mononuclear phagocytic cells. Abdominal ultrasound findings in children are evaluated in this disease. We present six pediatric cases, two with familial and four with sporadic hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, examined by abdominal sonography. Three signs were frequently observed: thickening of the gallbladder wall (all cases), increased periportal echogenicity (four cases), and enlarged lymph nodes in the porta hepatis (four cases). hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and ascitic fluid may also be found. These imaging findings are not specific and may be seen in viral hepatitis. However, once hepatitis is excluded, they may suggest the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a critically ill child. A bone smear must be done to establish the diagnosis.
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7/832. Spontaneous remission in myelodysplastic syndrome.

    A 73-year-old man was admitted for investigation of pancytopenia. His physical examination was unremarkable and the bone marrow aspirate was compatible with myelodysplastic syndrome (RAEB). cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a trisomy 21. The patient received transfusions of packed red cells, and his condition remained stable for the next 7 months. He was then admitted with a chest infection and was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics with satisfactory response. During his hospitalization there was a gradual increase in his complete blood count values, which persisted, resulting in a normal peripheral blood after 3 months. A bone marrow aspirate performed at that time revealed normal findings with no karyotypic abnormalities, indicating a spontaneous remission. The patient remained stable for the next 6 months; then he recurred with 20% blasts in his bone marrow and reappearance of trisomy 21 in 42% of the metaphases examined. Several hematologic malignancies with spontaneous remissions have been described to date, but they have generally been short and recurrence is the rule, as in the case described. The role of endogenous cytokines in triggering these spontaneous remissions is under question, as the exact mechanism is unknown.
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8/832. Extramedullary tumors of myeloid blasts in adults as a pattern of relapse following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Extramedullary tumors of lymphoid and myeloid blasts outside the well-defined sanctuaries following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) are rare. Little is known about the biology, treatment, and outcome of these tumors in this setting. methods: In this retrospective analysis, 134 consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who underwent allo-BMT at a single institution between 1990 and 1998 were reviewed. Five cases of isolated extramedullary myeloid sarcoma that occurred as patterns of recurrence following allo-BMT between 1990 and 1998 are reported. These patients were treated with radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, or a second allo-BMT. Clinical outcome is compared with posttransplantation bone marrow relapses observed during the same period at the same institution. The literature on the clinical characteristics, currently available treatment, and outcome of posttransplantation myeloid sarcoma patients was reviewed. RESULTS: Excluding isolated skin and central nervous system recurrences, the frequency of extramedullary myeloid sarcoma encountered as a relapse pattern following allo-BMT was determined to be 3.7% among patients with acute or chronic leukemia of myeloid origin. The survival of patients who were managed with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy was less than 4 months. A patient who underwent a second allo-BMT following local radiotherapy is alive and in complete remission more than 33 months after the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. The median survival of 17 patients with posttransplantation bone marrow relapse following allo-BMT was 2.2 months. When posttransplantation medullary recurrences are analyzed, patients with CML had a median survival of 12 months, with a significantly better 5-year survival rate than patients with AML (0 vs. 60%, P = 0.015; median survival, 12 months). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent isolated extramedullary myeloid sarcoma following allo-BMT are poor, as in any leukemic relapse, with the exception of patients with CML in this setting.
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keywords = bone
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9/832. Multiple disc herniations in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. A case report.

    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) tarda is a group of inherited dysplasias in which the spine and the epiphyses of long bones are affected from late childhood. A 19-year-old male was diagnosed as SED tarda. He had a thoracic and then lumbar disc herniations which were separated by a 4-year interval. Surgical excision was performed for each disc herniation. This is the first case report of multiple disc herniations in SED.
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10/832. Reality check: the patient perspective.

    No discussion of the topic of oncology chemotherapy quality improvement is complete without the patient as the focus of health care provider efforts. To explore the patients' perspective in their wellness quest, we present an interview with a patient who was diagnosed with lymphoma and received autologous stem cell and allogenic bone marrow transplants. As health care providers, let us never forget that advances in the science of medicine will ultimately be judged by their lasting effects, either positive or negative, on real people.
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