Cases reported "Reflex, Abnormal"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/118. Hyperactive rhizopathy of the vagus nerve and microvascular decompression. Case report.

    A 37-year-old woman underwent microvascular decompression of the superior vestibular nerve for disabling positional vertigo. Immediately following the operation, she noted severe and spontaneous gagging and dysphagia. Multiple magnetic resonance images were obtained but failed to demonstrate a brainstem lesion and attempts at medical management failed. Two years later she underwent exploration of the posterior fossa. At the second operation, the vertebral artery as well as the posterior inferior cerebellar artery were noted to be compressing the vagus nerve. The vessels were mobilized and held away from the nerve with Teflon felt. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately after the second operation and she has remained symptom free. The authors hypothesize that at least one artery was shifted at the time of her first operation, or immediately thereafter, which resulted in vascular compression of the vagus nerve. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a hyperactive gagging response treated with microvascular decompression. The case also illustrates the occurrence of a possibly iatrogenic neurovascular compression syndrome.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/118. A large Japanese family with machado-joseph disease: clinical and genetic analysis.

    We report clinical and genetic studies on a large Japanese family with machado-joseph disease (MJD), in which various different clinical phenotypes were seen in the same family, i.e., cerebellar ataxia type, severe amyotrophy type, and young-onset parkinsonism type. In addition, patients with very mild symptoms (formes frustes) were encountered. The expansion of the CAG repeat at the MJD locus ranged from 64 to 71 in 7 affected and 4 presymptomatic individuals. In our family, no clear inverse correlation was noted between the length of CAG-expansion and the age of onset, or the clinical phenotypes. Hyporeflexia was a common manifestation seen in 5 patients. It has been reported that the presence of peripheral neuropathy in MJD is associated with smaller increase in the CAG repeats; findings in our family conform with this observation.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4.54145370395
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, peripheral, neuropathy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/118. The guillain-barre syndrome following dengue fever.

    A 44 year old female presented with fever, muscle aches, rash and a low platelet count. IgM antibody to dengue virus was positive. Two weeks later she developed a flaccid areflexic quadriparesis. Nerve conduction studies showed a predominantly demyelitinating sensory motor polyneuropathy consistent with guillain-barre syndrome. Despite the relatively common occurrence of dengue fever, an associated polyradiculoneuropathy is distinctly uncommon.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.3638831334434
keywords = neuropathy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/118. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in Ross syndrome demonstrated by MIBG-SPECT.

    We investigated cardiac sympathetic innervation by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging in a patient with tonic pupils, loss of tendon reflexes, and segmental anhidrosis (Ross syndrome). Despite normal cardiovascular reflex tests, we observed a reduced global myocardial MIBG uptake as well as a regional uptake defect over the posterolateral cardiac territory indicating left ventricular peripheral sympathetic denervation. MIBG imaging seems to be a useful noninvasive diagnostic method for detection of early--possibly subclinical--cardiac autonomic impairment in Ross syndrome and provides further evidence of injury to postganglionic autonomic neurons as the underlying pathological mechanism of the disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.0579486978076
keywords = peripheral
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/118. Hypertonia, hyperreflexia, and excessive startle response in a neonate.

    Following an uneventful gestation, a newborn girl presented with hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, and excessive startle response. nose tap elicited a dramatic head recoil. Her mother had similar symptoms beginning as a child that improved but persisted into adulthood. In addition, several members of mother's family died unexpectedly in infancy. Hypertonia in the newborn period indicates central nervous system dysfunction of several possible causes, most of which are associated with severe cognitive deficits and limited neurological development.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.21811953733214
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/118. Acute axonal polyneuropathy in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition.

    In contrast to the classic, slowly progressive polyneuropathy in alcoholic patients, acute forms, clinically mimicking guillain-barre syndrome, are rare. We present a patient who developed motor weakness and sensory loss in all four limbs within four days. Laboratory data were consistent with long-term alcohol abuse and documented thiamine deficiency. Repeated cerebrospinal fluid examinations were normal. Electrophysiological studies showed an acute sensorimotor polyneuropathy with predominantly axonal involvement. We conclude that acute alcoholic neuropathy has to be distinguished from guillain-barre syndrome and other forms of acute polyneuropathy by using clinical, laboratory, and electrophysiological data. Both ethanol toxicity and vitamin deficiency could play a role in the pathogenesis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5.4555325337735
keywords = neuropathy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/118. Postural and action myoclonus in patients with parkinsonian type multiple system atrophy.

    patients with a parkinsonian syndrome and features of multisystem atrophy (pMSA) may exhibit abnormal movements of the hands and fingers, which are reported in the literature either as "jerky" tremor or myoclonus. We studied clinically and electrophysiologically these movements in 11 consecutive patients with pMSA. No abnormal movements were observed when the patients were at complete rest, except for a characteristic parkinsonian "pill-rolling" tremor in one patient. Abnormal small-amplitude, nonrhythmic movements involving just one or a few fingers, or more rarely the whole hand, were observed in nine patients when holding a posture or at the beginning of an action. Accelerometric recordings showed small-amplitude irregular oscillations which, contrary to those of patients with tremor, had no predominant peak in the Fast Fourier frequency spectrum analysis. Electromyographic recordings in the forearm and hand muscles showed brief jerks of less than 100 ms duration which were synchronous in antagonist muscles of the forearm and alternated with brief periods of silence. Electrical stimulation of the digital nerves evoked consistent reflex responses in the wrist flexor and extensor muscles at a latency of 55.3 /-4.1 ms (range, 50-63 ms). Routine electroencephalographic (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation were normal. back-averaging of the EEG activity time-locked to the jerks was performed in two patients with no evidence of abnormal cortical activity. Two patients had episodes of transient respiratory failure related to pneumonia. This caused a long-lasting enhancement of the abnormal hand and finger movements, which became larger and more widespread, with features of posthypoxic myoclonus. We conclude that the abnormal hand and finger movements of patients with pMSA are a form of postural and action myoclonus, and can be described as mini-polymyoclonus.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/118. Hemimasticatory spasm associated with localized scleroderma and facial hemiatrophy.

    OBJECTIVES: To report a case and discuss the mechanism of hemimasticatory spasm. DESIGN: Case report. PATIENT: A 37-year-old woman had a 3-year history of involuntary spasms of the right masseter muscle in association with localized scleroderma and facial hemiatrophy. Electrophysiological studies revealed a normal blink reflex. However, the masseter reflex and silent period were absent on the affected side. Distal latency and compound muscle action potential of the masseter nerve were normal. Needle electromyography demonstrated irregular bursts of motor unit potentials similar to those described in hemifacial spasm. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the head showed mild hypertrophy of the masseter muscle and atrophy of subcutaneous fatty tissues on the affected side. Local injection of botulinum toxin A into the masseter muscle resolved the patient's symptoms. CONCLUSION: On the basis of clinical and electrophysiological findings, focal demyelination of motor branches of the trigeminal nerve owing to deep tissue changes is suggested as the cause of abnormal excitatory electrical activities resulting in involuntary masticatory movement.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/118. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated pure motor lumbosacral polyradiculopathy.

    BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular disease is a common manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, but isolated and severe pathology confined to the motor roots or anterior horn cells are not a recognized clinical entity. OBJECTIVE: To describe the novel clinical presentation of human immunodeficiency virus-related polyradiculopathy manifesting as isolated severe motor symptoms confined to the legs. DESIGN: A case series comprising 4 patients identified prospectively during a 6-month period. SETTING: patients were seen in the Department of neurology, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, south africa. This is an 800-bed teaching hospital, with approximately 5000 patients seen annually in the Department of neurology. patients: patients were identified by their unique presentation with a severe isolated motor neuropathy in the lower limbs. All were Xhosa-speaking African women. RESULT: Early human immunodeficiency virus infection may be associated with pure motor lumbosacral polyradiculopathy. CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether this clinical syndrome should be regarded as a variant of the guillain-barre syndrome or whether it represents a unique disorder associated with early human immunodeficiency virus infection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.68194156672169
keywords = neuropathy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/118. Hyperreflexia in a patient with motor axonal guillain-barre syndrome.

    We report a patient who presented after an episode of diarrhoea with ascending, symmetrical weakness without sensory loss, and without sphincter or other autonomic dysfunction. On clinical examination there were no cranial nerve deficits. Hyperreflexia of tendon jerks without other upper motor neurone signs was found. Electrophysiological examination demonstrated acute distal symmetrical motor axonal polyneuropathy. No electrophysiological signs of peripheral nerve demyelination or central nervous system involvement were found. Albuminocytologic dissociation was present in the cerebrospinal fluid. Stool culture and serological tests were inconclusive. Our patient's clinical picture was, apart from hyperreflexia of tendon jerks throughout the disease, characteristic of guillain-barre syndrome. This is the first such patient reported in europe. The aetiology remained unclear. We suggest that selective axonal motor fibre affection, with possible mild pyramidal involvement, caused tendon jerk hyperreflexia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3.3360520228317
keywords = peripheral nerve, peripheral, neuropathy, nervous system, nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Reflex, Abnormal'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.