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1/101. sympathetic nervous system and pain: a clinical reappraisal.

    The target article discusses various aspects of the relationship between the sympathetic system and pain. To this end, the patients under study are divided into three groups. In the first group, called "reflex sympathetic dystrophy" (RSD), the syndrome can be characterized by a triad of autonomic, motor, and sensory symptoms, which occur in a distally generalized distribution. The pain is typically felt deeply and diffusely, has an orthostatic component, and is suppressed by the ischemia test. Under those circumstances, the pain is likely to respond to sympatholytic interventions. In a second group, called "sympathetically maintained pain" (SMP) syndrome, the principal symptoms are spontaneous pain, which is felt superficially and has no orthostatic component, and allodynia. These symptoms, typically confined to the zone of a lesioned nerve, may also be relieved by sympathetic blocks. Since the characteristics of the pain differ between RSD and SMP, the underlying kind of sympathetic-sensory coupling may also vary between these cases. A very small third group of patients exhibits symptoms of both RSD and SMP. The dependence or independence of pain on sympathetic function reported in most published studies seems to be questionable because the degree of technical success of the block remains uncertain. Therefore, pain should not be reported as sympathetic function independent until the criteria for a complete sympathetic block have been established and satisfied.
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keywords = block, nerve
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2/101. Complex regional pain syndrome type-1: a rare complication of arteriovenous graft placement.

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type-1 (previously termed reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome) may be manifested as sympathetically mediated pain and swelling in an extremity. Among the numerous causes of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, the most common is trauma. We describe a 71-year-old diabetic man with endstage renal disease who presented with CRPS type-1 of the left hand one month after construction of a PTFE (polytetrafluroethylene) arteriovenous graft. The symptoms of CRPS improved greatly with stellate ganglion blocks and physical therapy.
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ranking = 0.32584127550223
keywords = block
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3/101. Following the clues to neuropathic pain. Distribution and other leads reveal the cause and the treatment approach.

    Neuropathic pain can seem enigmatic at first because it can last indefinitely and often a cause is not evident. However, heightened awareness of typical characteristics, such as the following, makes identification fairly easy: The presence of certain accompanying conditions (e.g., diabetes, hiv or herpes zoster infection, multiple sclerosis) Pain described as shooting, stabbing, lancinating, burning, or searing Pain worse at night Pain following anatomic nerve distribution Pain in a numb or insensate site The presence of allodynia Neuropathic pain responds poorly to standard pain therapies and usually requires specialized medications (e.g., anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, opioid analgesics) for optimal control. Successful pain control is enhanced with use of a systematic approach consisting of disease modification, local or regional measures, and systemic therapy.
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ranking = 0.022476173493303
keywords = nerve
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4/101. reflex sympathetic dystrophy arising in a patient with familial mediterranean fever.

    A 14-year-old girl with familial mediterranean fever (FMF) had had acute attacks of fever, abdominal pain, and arthritis for 4 years. Her last arthritis attack was protracted, leading to reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) in her right lower extremity. Physical therapy along with sympathetic ganglion block and corticosteroid therapy was used for the treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RSD arising in a patient with FMF. Early recognition of RSD in FMF patients is important, and physical therapy should be applied along with medical treatment.
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ranking = 0.32584127550223
keywords = block
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5/101. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with resistance to local anesthetic block: a case report.

    We present a case of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type 1 in a 12-year-old girl. The patient did not respond to the usual therapeutic modalities used to treat CRPS, including physical therapy, lumbar sympathetic block, epidural local anesthetic block, intravenous lidocaine infusion, or other oral medications. Of note is the fact that, during epidural block, the patient demonstrated a resistance to local anesthetic neural blockade in the area of the body involved with the pain problem. The mechanism of this resistance could be related to the changes in the dorsal horn cells of the spinal cord, secondary to activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, which may play a role in the pathophysiology of this pain syndrome.
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ranking = 2.6067302040179
keywords = block
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6/101. Chronic regional pain syndrome, type 1: Part II.

    Chronic regional pain syndrome, type 1 (CRPS1) is a complex neurologic disease characterized by chronic, severe, burning pain; hyperesthesia; soft tissue swelling; dystrophy; hyperhidrosis; vasomotor and sudomotor instability; joint stiffness; and patchy osteoporosis. Five to six million people in the united states alone suffer from CRPS1. To date, CRPS1 is poorly understood and often is not recognized clinically. This syndrome requires early detection, pain control, and treatment in tandem with physical therapy to the affected area. Part I (published in September) discussed background information on CRPS1 and sympathetic nerve blocks. Part II focuses on the remaining treatment modalities (e.g., sympathectomy, physical therapy, stimulators, trigger point injections, acupuncture, tourniquet effects, placebo effects, amputation).
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ranking = 4.3915520197181
keywords = nerve block, block, nerve
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7/101. cocaine-induced reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) usually follows traumatic injuries or neurologic disorders. The authors report a rare case of RSD that followed intraarterial administration of cocaine in a patient with a history of intravenous drug abuse. The cocaine was self-administered inadvertently into the femoral artery rather than the femoral vein. Despite the intense pain, swelling, and dermatologic changes that followed, the diagnosis of RSD was not considered until scintigraphic studies suggested it. A combination of normal radiographs, a normal leukocyte study, and an abnormal bone scan in the region of tenderness and swelling excluded other possibilities and suggested RSD. In our patient, RSD was likely caused by an ischemic autonomic injury from the vasoconstrictor action of cocaine. Clinical follow-up and relief using phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic blocker and vasodilator, made the diagnosis of RSD most likely.
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ranking = 0.32584127550223
keywords = block
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8/101. Axillary brachial plexus block with patient controlled analgesia for complex regional pain syndrome type I: a case report.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: brachial plexus block (BPB) has been cited as a treatment modality for complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) of the upper limb. However, there are no reports using axillary BPB with patient controlled analgesia (PCA) for the treatment of CRPS I. This report is based on the retrospective observations of the outcome and effects of axillary BPB with PCA in a patient with CRPS I. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old man suffered from CRPS I of the right upper limb after surgical release of carpal tunnel syndrome of the right hand. Symptoms and signs over the right hand were alleviated under rehabilitation and conventional pharmacological management, but severe painful swelling of the right wrist persisted. Axillary BPB with PCA was performed on the 32nd postoperative day, which soon resulted in significant reduction of pain with gradual improvement of function of the right wrist. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary BPB with PCA may provide patients with CRPS I of the upper limb a feasible and effective treatment. .
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ranking = 1.6292063775112
keywords = block
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9/101. reflex sympathetic dystrophy with hidradenitis suppurativa exacerbation: a case report.

    reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or complex regional pain syndrome type 1, is characterized by spontaneous pain or allodynia and hyperalgesia disproportionate to the inciting event, multiperipheral nerve involvement, edema, vasomotor or sudomotor change, and possible loss of function. It has been described in relation to various insults, including a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions. We report a case of a patient who developed RSD 1 week after an exacerbation of hidradenitis suppurativa, a rare chronic inflammatory disease of apocrine sweat glands. The patient responded well to a combination of range-of-motion exercises, thermal modalities, and oral steroids. hidradenitis suppurativa should be considered when searching for an etiology of new onset RSD.
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ranking = 0.022476173493303
keywords = nerve
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10/101. Recurrent and migratory reflex sympathetic dystrophy in children.

    reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a syndrome characterized by superficial pain and tenderness associated with swelling, vasomotor instability, and dystrophic changes of the skin. In children, it is rarely reported and is felt to have a more benign and self-limited course. This case illustrates that, in children, reflex sympathetic dystrophy can occur without any previous history of trauma, and may be recurrent and migratory. A review of the literature is included. An 11-year-old girl, with no history of trauma, presented in 1992 with spontaneous onset of right leg pain. She was diagnosed with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and she was treated unsuccessfully with oral medications. Her symptoms then resolved in 2 weeks after receiving epidural anaesthesia and aggressive physical therapy. Over the next 5 years, she presented to the paediatric rehabilitation clinic three times with recurrent RSD in her bilateral arms. The first two times were refractory to conservative management and resolved with four stellate ganglion blocks. The third recurrence persisted with three stellate ganglion blocks and resolved with gabapentin.
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ranking = 0.65168255100446
keywords = block
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