Cases reported "Refractive Errors"

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1/5. Voluntary nystagmus associated with accommodation spasms.

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary nystagmus has been recognized as a pendular, rapid, conjugate, primarily horizontal, benign eye movement initiated and maintained by voluntary effort. CASE: A 10-year-old Japanese girl presented with voluntary nystagmus associated with accommodation spasms. Her chief complaints, intermittent blurred vision, headache, and soreness of the eyes, were thought to be related to the voluntary nystagmus and accommodation spasms. FINDINGS: The waveform of the nystagmus appeared pendular, the frequency was 13-15 Hz, and the amplitude was 3-5 degrees. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopic video images clearly demonstrated vertical and torsional components in addition to the horizontal eye movements. Her refraction was unstable, varying between -0.5 diopters (D) and -5.5 D, and the recording of the accommodometer increased to -12.0 D when nystagmus was initiated. CONCLUSIONS: This may be a unique form of voluntary nystagmus that consists of horizontal, vertical, and rotational components associated with accommodation spasms. observation of this patient continues, without any further treatment or examination.
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2/5. Spontaneous resolution of infantile esotropia.

    PURPOSE: To report the spontaneous resolution of infantile esotropia in 3 patients. methods: The clinical histories and the results of ophthalmologic examinations in 3 patients with infantile esotropia were reviewed and analyzed with reference to the literature. RESULTS: All 3 patients with infantile esotropia were diagnosed with 25 to 30 PD of esotropia before the age of 6 months. All of them had insignificant refractive errors. Against medical advice, they were not brought in for follow-up examinations. At the age of 34 months to 59 months, the esotropia of the patients had changed into exophoria, esophoria less than 4 PD, or orthophoria. All patients eventually showed dissociated vertical deviation and overaction of the inferior oblique muscles. Of the 2 cooperative patients, 1 consistently identified Titmus stereograms with 3000 seconds of arc and fused Worth 4 dots at near and at distance. The other patient could not identify stereo targets and suppressed one eye on Worth 4 testing at distance, though she showed no suppression at near. CONCLUSION: In these cases, infantile esotropia with a relatively small angle may spontaneously resolve without any treatment. However, all these patients showed poor stereoacuity, dissociated vertical deviation, and overaction of the inferior oblique muscles.
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3/5. Comatic aberration as a cause of monocular diplopia.

    Three patients (5 eyes) presented with complaints of monocular diplopia and no history of ocular trauma or surgery. The patients had comprehensive neuroophthalmic evaluation including manifest refraction, anterior segment and dilated fundus examination, and corneal topography. All patients also had wavefront analysis using the LADARWave system (Alcon). Two patients (4 eyes) also had hard contact lens overrefraction. The patients had a normal initial examination including corneal topography. One patient (2 eyes) did not experience resolution of diplopia with pinhole. No eye improved with manifest refraction or hard contact lens overrefraction. However, each patient had a significant amount of coma on wavefront analysis. Moreover, eyes with horizontal diplopia had horizontal coma and eyes with vertical diplopia had vertical coma as measured with the wavefront device. Higher-order optical aberrations such as coma may be associated with monocular diplopia. Wavefront technology may be useful in the workup of monocular diplopia.
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4/5. Symmetry of refractive and visual acuity outcome in the Prospective Evaluation of Radial Keratotomy (PERK) study.

    In the Prospective Evaluation of Radial Keratotomy (PERK) study, the symmetry of refractive and visual acuity outcome was analyzed in 269 patients with bilateral radial keratotomy with a single operation in each eye. patients were required to wait 1 year after surgery on the first eye before having surgery on the second eye. At 1 year after surgery on the second eye, 98% of patients had 3.00 diopters or less difference between their two eyes in the spherical equivalent of the cycloplegic refraction (100% before surgery), and 96% of patients had 3.00 D or less difference between their two eyes in the amount of refractive power in the vertical meridian (100% before surgery). Thus, surgically induced refractive anisometropia was not a major complication in the PERK study. However, 14% of patients had four to eight Snellen lines difference in the uncorrected visual acuity between their two eyes (1% before surgery), emphasizing that induced asymmetry of refraction is a potential clinical problem for some patients.
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5/5. A new optical modality to overcome diplopia.

    The author has presented a new method to correct vertical diplopia using a prism contact lens. To the present time, its application has been limited to contact lenses correcting refractive errors of less than 3D and to ground-in prisms of not more than 6 delta. The field is new. Technical, mathematical, and clinical advances should eventually allow the use of stronger prisms over a wider range of refractive corrections.
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