Cases reported "Refractive Errors"

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1/55. adie syndrome: evidence for refractive error and accomodative asymmetry as the cause of amblyopia.

    PURPOSE: To report objective changes in accommodation in a child with adie syndrome. methods: A child aged 2 years 10 months when initially examined was found to have good visual acuity in both eyes, a low degree of hypermetropia (isometropic), and Adie pupil presumed to be caused by chicken pox that had occurred 2 months earlier. amblyopia developed but responded well to treatment, which involved correction of the refractive error and occlusion therapy. Objective changes in the refraction of the eye were measured on the Canon R1 autorefractor at 3.8 m and 33 cm. RESULT: The degree of accommodation in the affected eye when both eyes were open was markedly reduced. CONCLUSION: The presence of isometropic hypermetropia, which remains uncorrected when adie syndrome is present, can lead to the development of amblyopia in a child.
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keywords = visual
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2/55. Central bump-like opacity as a complication of high hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    PURPOSE: A new complication is reported in association with high hyperopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. methods: One thousand consecutive eyes were treated with a Meditec MEL-60 excimer laser (Meditec Inc, Heroldsberg, germany) for hyperopic refractive error between 1 diopters and 7 diopters. RESULTS: Three eyes with high hyperopic corrections between 5 and 6 diopters had a central, round bump-like subepithelial scar develop 1 month after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy, which reduced the uncorrected and spectacle-corrected visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Central bump-like opacity is a new, visually significant complication of unknown origin associated with high hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy. Possible causes of this complication include drying and edema of the cornea as a result of prolonged exposure, interruption of the peripheral superficial nerve plexus affecting the central anterior stroma, and abnormal epithelial or tear film function resulting from excessive central steeping.
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keywords = visual
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3/55. Effectiveness of LASIK to correct refractive error after penetrating keratoplasty.

    OBJECTIVE: refractive errors may invalidate the good results of penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The Authors evaluate the effectiveness of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in the correction of refractive error after PK. MATERIALS AND methods: Four patients, a 26-year-old woman, a 54-year-old man, a 19-year-old man, and a 51-year-old woman, showed refractive errors: -11 = -4.5 x 85 ; -8, -4.5 = -11 x 95 ; and -4.5 = -4 x = 1200, with a clear graft at least 20 months after penetrating keratoplasty secondary to keratoconus. However, they underwent the LASIK procedure with a nasal-hinged flap of 160 um. No sutures were placed. RESULTS: At follow-up, 24, 18, 12, and 12 months, respectively, the graft remained clear and the endothelial cells were unchanged. The uncorrected visual acuities were 20/50, 20/25, 20/50, and 20/25, respectively with an unchanged best corrected visual acuity (20/20) for all patients. No significant complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: LASIK procedure seems to be an effective technique to correct refractive error after successful penetrating keratoplasty.
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ranking = 2
keywords = visual
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4/55. Contact lens fitting difficulties following refractive surgery for high myopia.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and optical problems encountered in contact lens fitting following refractive surgery for high myopia. methods: Following refractive surgery for high myopia (greater than -10.00 D) we corrected residual refractive errors with contact lenses in the four eyes of two patients. The first patient had undergone bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK),with two subsequent LASIK retreatments in the left eye. Ten months later she was fit with rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses in both eyes. The second patient had undergone a clear lens extraction in the right eye and radial keratotomy followed by photorefractive keratectomy(PRK) in the left eye. She was fit with toric soft lenses six years postoperatively. RESULTS: Final visual acuity obtained with contact lenses was 20/25-20/20 in all eyes. The first patient required significant minus lens power compensation. Furthermore, the RGP lens in the left eye was slightly decentered due to corneal irregularity induced by LASIK. The second patient had regular corneal surfaces and was successfully fit with daily wear toric soft lenses despite the 2.75 D of residual astigmatism in the left eye. CONCLUSIONS: Following refractive surgery for high myopia a proportion of patients will remain undercorrected. In these patients the alterations in corneal architecture that ensue make contact lens fitting more challenging. patients with regular astigmatism may be fitted successfully with toric soft lenses. patients with corneal irregularities should be fit with RGP lenses.
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keywords = visual
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5/55. Late-onset traumatic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap dehiscence.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap dehiscence following focal trauma six months after uneventful refractive surgery. methods: Case report. A 37 year old man was seen one day after a tree branch snapped tangentially against his left cornea causing a dehiscence of his LASIK flap. RESULTS: The flap was repositioned after treating the exposed flap stroma with a 50:50 mixture of distilled water and balanced salt solution. The patient regained 20/20 uncorrected visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: patients should be informed about the potential for traumatic flap dehiscence following LASIK surgery and advised to wear eye protection when appropriate. Due to minimal wound healing except at the edges of the flap, corneal flap dehiscence may occur months or years after uneventful LASIK.
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keywords = visual
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6/55. Late traumatic flap dislocation after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Three patients who had laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) experienced severe direct corneal trauma 3 to 38 months postoperatively. Flap dislocation resulted in all 3 patients. Presentation following trauma ranged from a few hours to 9 days. All patients were successfully managed by surgical flap repositioning, and all maintained a best corrected visual acuity of 20/20. A literature review of traumatic flap dislocation cases and the most recent methods of diagnosis and management are included.
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keywords = visual
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7/55. Pseudophakic ametropia managed with a phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens.

    We report the use of a phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) to correct pseudophakic ametropia. Two eyes of 2 patients developed ametropia after unilateral phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. The manifest refraction was -6.00 -0.50 x 50 in the first patient and 4.50 -1.00 x 15 in the second. Both patients were bothered by the induced anisometropia and had posterior chamber phakic IOL implantation in the pseudophakic eye. Postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity improved from 20/400 to 20/30 in the first patient and from 20/200 to 20/40 in the second patient. The manifest refraction was -0.50 -0.75 x 55 and 1.50 -1.50 x 30, respectively. No complications were noted. Implantation of a phakic posterior chamber IOL may be an alternative to currently available methods of managing pseudophakic ametropia.
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keywords = visual
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8/55. The ateliotic macula: a newly recognized developmental anomaly.

    PURPOSE: We present a macular phenotype resulting from 1 or more abnormalities in the developmental pathway of the central retina. methods: We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of 7 patients observed since shortly after birth with regard to visual acuity, refractive error, anterior segment status, retinal findings including foveal structure, and natural history. RESULTS: The patients varied in age from 18 months to 18 years. All patients were examined for the first time during their first year of life and by us at the age of 5 years or younger. The longest follow-up period was 16 years. The abnormal appearance of the macula consisted of thinning of the retina, rarefication of the pigment epithelium with excess visibility of the large choroidal vessels, and absence of the foveal reflex. The visual acuities varied from 20/20 in the better eye to light perception. A retinal detachment was noted in 1 patient at age 2 1/2 years. The refractive errors varied from -2.50 to -16.50 diopters of spherical equivalent. The disease was limited to the retina in 4 patients. In 2 patients, however, developmental abnormalities of the anterior segment were also present; they consisted of malformation of the iris in 1 patient and Peters' anomaly in the other. The electroretinogram (ERG) showed reduced but not absent photopic responses and some reduction in scotopic responses. CONCLUSION: The phenotype of ateliotic macula is being defined as characterized by an unfinished or primordial appearance. In the 7 patients studied, visual loss was noted shortly after birth. The visual outcome was variable with regard to visual acuity, but many patients showed improvement. There was no evidence of significant worsening of the disease with age except in 1 patient who had a retinal detachment. The ERG responses showed primarily photopic but also scotopic changes. The better-preserved ERG differentiates this disorder from Leber's congenital amaurosis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = visual
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9/55. The role of epithelial defects in intralamellar inflammation after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    BACKGROUND: A single factor responsible for diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) has not yet been identified. Various theories have been proposed to explain what may trigger this condition. We evaluated the role of epithelial defects in interface inflammation and assessed the outcome of eyes with DLK with and without epithelial defects. methods: We reviewed the records of all patients with DLK after LASIK performed at the Toronto Gimbel eye Centre between September 1999 and May 2000. patients with other epithelial problems, such as punctate epithelial erosions, were excluded. patients with an epithelial defect and interface keratitis (group 1) were treated with a bandage contact lens and topical steroid therapy; those with interface keratitis alone (group 2) were treated with topical steroid therapy. Variables examined included the onset and duration of DLK, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, refractive outcome and retreatment rate. RESULTS: A total of 1,436 LASIK procedures were performed during the study period. Thirteen patients (20 eyes) had DLK after LASIK, in all cases of the sporadic type (i.e., nonepidemic). Of the 20 eyes, 8 had an epithelial disturbance. All the patients were followed for at least 3 months. Three eyes (37.5%) in group 1 had uncorrected visual acuity before retreatment of less than 20/25, compared with 2 eyes (16.7%) in group 2. The mean postoperative spherical equivalent was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (-0.60 vs. -0.02 dioptres) (p = 0.01). The retreatment rate was 37.5% (3/8) in group 1 and 16.7% (3/12) in group 2, a nonsignificant difference. After retreatment the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better in all cases. There were no cases of recurrence of DLK after retreatment. INTERPRETATION: Eyes with interface keratitis and an epithelial defect have a larger deviation from emmetropia before retreatment than eyes with interface keratitis alone. patients with epithelial defects intraoperatively or who are at risk for such defects postoperatively must be monitored carefully, as they may be at increased risk for DLK.
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ranking = 4
keywords = visual
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10/55. Anterior lamellar keratoplasty with a microkeratome: a method for managing complications after refractive surgery.

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate a technique of anterior lamellar keratoplasty with standardized and automated preparation of surface-parallel cuts in both donor and recipient appropriate for addressing several problems after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). methods: We report a noncomparative series of ten eyes with complications after LASIK and PRK. Lamellar cuts were performed in donor and recipient eyes by means of an automated microkeratome. Lamellar grafts were fixed by only four single sutures. In two eyes, a re-lift LASIK was performed after 6 months. RESULTS: Surgery was uneventful and visual acuity was improved in all eyes. Residual irregular astigmatism and refractive error were corrected in two eyes by means of excimer laser computer-assisted ablation and resulted in a further improvement of uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior lamellar keratoplasty with a microkeratome can be used for the management of certain complications of PRK and LASIK.
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keywords = visual
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