Cases reported "Remission, Spontaneous"

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1/13. Acute abdomen due to late retroperitoneal extravasation from a femoral venous catheter in a newborn.

    CONTEXT: The use of parenteral nutrition via a central venous catheter is a common practice in the neonatal intensive care setting. Extravasation of the infusate leading to an acute abdomen is a complication that has only rarely been documented. This report describes the case of a premature infant with a femoral catheter placed in the inferior vena cava, who developed an acute abdomen as a result of late retroperitoneal extravasation of parenteral nutrition. CASE REPORT: A pre-term infant receiving total parenteral nutrition via a femoral venous catheter developed an acute abdomen five days after the catheter placement. Extravascular catheter migration to the retroperitoneal space and extravasation of the infusate was diagnosed by contrast injection. Withdrawal of the catheter was followed by prompt cessation of the signs and full recovery from the acute abdomen, without the need for surgery. A review of the literature is presented, emphasizing the clinical and therapeutic aspects of this unusual complication from femoral venous catheterization and parenteral nutrition.
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2/13. Acute loss of the small bowel in a school-age boy. Difficult choices: to sustain life or to stop treatment?

    A 9-year-old boy lost almost all his small bowel after an acute volvulus due to a congenital, but previously unsuspected malrotation. survival using total parenteral nutrition is possible in these cases, but the medical burden is heavy. Small intestinal transplantation was performed for the first time in the netherlands in 2001 and this patient was treated 3 years earlier. The results of bowel transplantation are not as good as in kidney or liver transplantation. A method of Ethical Case Deliberation helped to elucidate the importance of each contribution in the discussion and provided space and a broad basis for decision-making. The parents refused to allow parenteral nutrition to be started because of the bad prospects for quality of life in the future and the medical team, after thorough deliberation with specialists throughout the country, and consultation of the literature, agreed. CONCLUSION: Despite the many different opinions, the parents felt accepted in their refusal of treatment for their son and the team accepted the decision.
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3/13. Internal hemorrhage caused by a twisted malignant ovarian dysgerminoma: ultrasonographic findings of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer presents as an acute abdomen very rarely. The purpose of the study is the description of a right ovarian malignant dysgerminoma presenting as an abdominal emergency. CASE: A 16-year-old white female presented with acute abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa. On physical examination the abdomen was acute and a mass in the right lower abdomen was palpated. The patient was sexually active and bimanual gynecological examination revealed the presence of a large lobulated solid tumor in the position of the right adnexa. Ultrasound examination showed the presence of a large, multilobulated, heterogeneous, predominantly solid pelvic mass. color flow imaging showed intratumoral flow signals. The uterus and the left ovary had normal size and echo-texture. Fluid was found in the cul-de-sac and in Morisson's space. An immediate exploratory laparotomy exposed the presence of a twisted right ovarian mass and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A superficial tumoral vessel actively bleeding was seen. Peritoneal fluid was obtained for cytology. The intra-abdominal hemorrhage ceased when the ovarian pedicle was clamped. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and biopsy of the omentum. Pathologic analysis revealed a malignant dysgerminoma of the right ovary, expanding to the mesosalpinx. Cytology was positive for malignancy. Postoperative CT scan of the upper and lower abdomen was negative. The patient was assigned to FIGO Stage IIC and referred for platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Ovarian malignant dysgerminoma may present as an acute abdomen because of torsion, passive blood congestion, rupture of superficial tumoral vessels and subsequent intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Ovarian dysgerminoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in a young woman with acute surgical abdomen and a solid heterogeneous pelvic mass detected by ultrasonographic scan.
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4/13. Inguinal mass due to an external supravesical hernia and acute abdomen due to an internal supravesical hernia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Although supravesical hernias were described as early as 1804, there have been fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. The supravesical fossa is a triangular area bounded laterally and above by median and medial umbilical ligaments, and below by the peritoneal reflection that passes from the anterior abdominal wall to the dome of the bladder. A hernia starting in this fossa usually protrudes through the abdominal wall as a direct inguinal hernia (external supravesical hernia). Less commonly, it remains within the abdomen, passing into spaces around the bladder (internal supravesical hernia). A 43-year-old mill worker presented with an enlarged painful mass in the left groin. He underwent a surgical repair of a direct inguinal hernia without addressing an unrecognized supravesicular component. Eight hours after his discharge next morning, he presented with acute abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distention. The second surgery revealed the presence of a left lateral internal supravesical hernia with incarcerated small bowel. This was also repaired, and the patient was discharged in stable condition. This report aims to review and discuss the surgical anatomy of these rare supravesical hernias and calls attention to this type of hernia as an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction.
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5/13. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma with capsular invasion.

    A 67-year-old Japanese man developed a sudden onset of severe right-side upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. On hospitalization, physical examination revealed sweating, tachycardia, hypertension and the appearance of peripheral vasoconstriction. An urgent computed tomography scan with contrast demonstrated a large hematoma in the right retroperitoneal space. A phentolamine test and an 131iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine scan suggested pheochromocytoma. An elective right adrenalectomy was successfully performed after pretreatment for sufficient volume replacement with continuous administration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Pathological diagnosis was an adrenal pheochromocytoma 9.0 x 6.5 cm in diameter with evidence of capsular invasion, which could be associated with a tear in the capsule.
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6/13. Retroperitoneal perforation of a duodenal diverticulum with colonic necrosis -- report of a case.

    Primary duodenal diverticula are usually asymptomatic. About 115 perforations have been reported, but none with right colon necrosis. We report a 45-year-old woman, with a five days history of high fever along with epigastric and periumbilical pain. physical examination revealed right upper and lower quadrant tenderness with peritoneal signs. White blood cell count was 11 500/mm (3) while biochemical and hepatic biology tests were normal. Abdominal radiographs showed no pathologic findings. Ultrasound disclosed fluid in the lower pelvis. Computerized tomography revealed fluid collection in the right hepatorenal space. Intraoperative findings included purulent fluid in the lower pelvis, segmental necrotic changes of the right colon, and a perforated diverticulum on the antimesenteric border of the third part of the duodenum. Surgery consisted of right hemicolectomy and ileo-transverse anastomosis, diverticulectomy, and decompressive lateral duodenostomy at the second duodenal portion. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. A contrast study from the duodenostomy tube on the 6 (th) postoperative day showed no leakage or obstruction. duodenostomy tube was removed on the 14 (th) postoperative day. histology confirmed the diagnosis of a primary duodenal diverticulum.
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7/13. wandering spleen as a cause of acute abdomen: a case report.

    We report a case of acute abdomen due to torsion of the long vascular pedicle of a wandering spleen, displaced in the abdominal cavity, and caused by partial infarction of the spleen. The 46-year-old patient presented to the casualty department with piercing abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and a palpable mass in the mesogastric region. US and CT scan revealed the presence of a mass compatible with an ectopic spleen in the mesohypogastric region, featuring necrotic-haemorrhagic areas, a long, contorted vascular pedicle twisted on its axis, and an empty splenic space. We performed an emergency laparoscopic splenectomy. Conservative surgery (splenopexy) could not be done because of the severe impairment of the vascular supply to the organ. Nowadays, conservative surgery is preferred in cases without vascular impairment, especially in children, by creating an omental or synthetic pouch after fixing the organ in the splenic space.
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8/13. Cystic lymphangioma of Retzius space manifested as acute abdomen.

    The authors describe a rare pediatric case of cystic lymphangioma arising from the Retzius space. A 9-year-old boy underwent an appendectomy in a nearby hospital after a sudden onset of severe hypogastralgia. When laparotomy revealed a retroperitoneal mass, he was referred to our hospital. After diagnosis of a multicystic mass in the Retzius space, extirpation of the cystic lesion was performed. Histological evaluation of the resected specimens revealed cystic lymphangioma. The patient has been free of symptoms for 6 years since the operation.
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9/13. Intestinal injury after lumbar discectomy.

    In a review of 5,200 lumbar discectomies performed from 1974 to 1989, two patients sustained a ventral perforation of the disc space followed by isolated small intestinal injury. Both patients underwent lumbar discectomy at the lumbosacral junction and presented with signs and symptoms of acute abdominal distress within three days after the operation. At surgical laparotomy, small tears were noted in the ileum, which were closed primarily. The patients had an uneventful recovery. The results of a review of 11 instances reported in the literature suggest that isolated intestinal injuries usually occur postoperatively at the lumbosacral junction and involve the small intestine. Factors, such as body habitus, surgical experience, patient positioning and types of instruments, as well as the use of a surgical microscope, do not appear to modify the risk of intestinal injury. After discectomy, patients may present with acute abdominal signs and symptoms or chronic wound infections. work-up studies include evaluation of vascular structures and ureters either roentgenographically or at abdominal exploration. A high index of suspicion and adequate disc space visualization during discectomy may reduce the incidence of this complication.
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10/13. A clinically "silent" pheochromocytoma with spontaneous hemorrhage.

    We report a case of an abdominal mass that had hemorrhaged spontaneously into the retroperitoneal space and presented as an acute abdominal catastrophe. The pathological diagnosis was pheochromocytoma, although the patient had no suggestive symptoms preoperatively. The management of this silent pheochromocytoma and its atypical presentation are discussed.
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